Гендерные различия в стимулировании рынком труда инновационных компонент человеческого капитала
The article based on data of the author’s social survey investigates, which components of human capital that characterize innovative potential of the worker, bring him an additional reward on the regional labor market, and which of them are undervalued; what are the differences in such additional reward of men and women; the possible reasons of these differences are being found out. The investigation is based on data of two author’s social surveys, undertaken in 2010-2011. The results indicate that the differences in the different cases can be in favor of not only men but also women.
The object of research: Enterprises of the Nizhny Novgorod region.
The subject of research: the relationship between the wages of male and employees in the region, and innovative components of their human capital.
The theoretical aspect of the subject: the concept and essence of innovative components of human capital, gender inequality in income. The practical aspect of the subject: differences in wages of corporate employees in Nizhny Novgorod region, depending on the performance of three components of their human capital, classified as innovative.
The purpose of research is to investigate the differences between men and women in reward that Russian labor market gives to innovative components of their human capital and to identify the possible reasons of these differences.
The main theoretical and empirical concepts:
1. Human capital of an employee (micro level) and organizations (meso level) contains the components that can be defined as innovative. Some of them bring additional income to the owners and thus their development and use is stimulated by the labor market, but the others are not evaluated and rewarded enough.
2 Stimulation of the labor market innovative component of human capital has the distinction workers, male and female. Studied examples we have shown that women these qualities have on average less and their wages are lower on average, but the presence of such components in the average brings them more additional income than men.
The principal result of this research is that the valuable skills have a negative and significant effect on alcohol abuse. We found that a higher professional level is consistent with a stronger negative relationship between earnings and alcohol-related behaviors and problems. The explanation of the result is proposed in that the pecuniary losses imposed on an individual by alcohol-related physical inability are positively conditioned by the valuable skills.
The modern concept of modernizing Russia somehow reproduce the history of the theory of innovation. The theory of innovation in its development has gone through a least 3 stages. In the first phase (1910 - first half of the 40s) to the forefront issues of understanding the nature of innovation and their role in the development of society over time (long, medium and short periods), the relationship of innovation and long cycles conditions. This period is associated with the names of J.A.Schumpeter, M.I.Tugan-Baranovsky and N.D. Kondratieff. The second stage in the development of innovation theory (second half 1940 - first half of the 1970s) is characterized by the increased role of macroeconomic analysis, in turn, he has at least two substages: the first of which was dominated by the ideas of neo-Keynesians, on the second-neoclassical. The third stage of development of the theory of innovation began in the mid-1970s and proldolzhaetsya to the present. It is characterized by an offensive alternative approach to macroeconomic theory. With a certain degree of conditionality is also possible to distinguish two substages. The first (second half of the 1970s - early 1990s) is characterized by the emergence of new ideas drawn from evolutionary theory, institutionalism (the theory of the firm) and management (innovation management). In the second substage (mid 90s) innovations studied by the methods of systems analysis. The authors are increasingly focused on issues of comparative studies: a comparative analysis of innovation policy in different countries, study the ways and means of forming an effective innovation systems. In the report it is critically considered not only the official point of view, but also M. Porter, K. Ketels work “Competitiveness at the Crossroads: Choosing the Future Direction of the Russian Economy”. Also «The forecast of innovative, technological and structural dynamics of Russian economy till 2030» and RAND Corporation report “The Global Technology Revolution 2020: Trends, Drivers, Barriers, and Social Implications” are analyzed. In this paper institutional preconditions and possibilities of application of the concept of social market economy in the 21st century Russia were analyzed. Basic elements of social market economy are personal liberty, social justice, and economic efficiency.
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