Мировой демографический барометр: Денежные переводы международных мигрантов: 2014 год
A model of contract theory is studied, where the objective functions of a regulation body and firms of two types involve ecological variables. It is shown that the way of working of the regulation mechanism (separating or pooling) depends on both political condition (regulators of what type set mechanism and contracts), and on economic conditions (distinction between “dirty” and “green” firms in efficiency and a degree of their spreading in the economy).
The subject matter of the article is the EU immigration policy applied to third country nationals (TCN). The main aspects of the policy are considered: humanitarian policy, national security policy, and various legal tools of its implementation. In particular the author considers the 1951 Geneva Convention and 1967 New York Protocol relating to the status of refugees, the clauses of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU regulating «area of freedom, security and justice» (title V), Schengen Conventions, the related acts of the EU secondary law. As to the humanitarian aspect of the EU immigration policy, its moral essence - the respect for human dignity is emphasized. The national security measures are directed mainly against illegal immigration. Finally the author comes to the conclusion that EU humanitarian efforts in the immigration policy proved to be more effective than the security one.
The article shows the role of tourism in the world economy, its impact on the level of welfare of the population of the world countries and also the author discover the directions of the activities of the World tourism organization for the eradication of poverty in developing countries.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.