"Верное ядро Вампу". К 90-летию "партийной" военной школы Гоминьдана
The article contains the feature of history of Huangpu (Whampoa) Military School, which was founded in 1924 by Chinese Nationalist Party (Guomindang) whith the USSR support and the Chinese communists participation. The author shows the significance of Huangpu image for the Guomindang and the CCP "symbolical policy", the role of the school not only in formation of the Guomindang army and in training its military cadres, but also as the base of some institutions of the major importance for the Guomindang power, such as bodies of political indoctrination and propaganda, special services, public organisations.
The Soviet assistance to the leading political forces in China, including the Guomindang, has been always an object of numerous discussions. Soviet/Russian historians tend to emphasize its major importance for the political development of China, but their Chinese counterparts belittle its significance quite often. Why is it still difficult to evaluate the quantity and the quality of this assistance? What criteria should be used for its objective assessment? These questions are answered in the book by the historian and sinologist Alexander Yurkevich (the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”, Moscow). Judging from documents (some of them have never been known) the author shows why and how Moscow’s assistance to the Guomindang in the 1920’s with advisers, finance and material supplies did not become an instrument of the Moscow plans in China, but rather helped the Guomindang undermine these plans and form its own strategy of the unification of China.
This book will help specialists in social history, students and general readers interested in the history of China and Russia learn more about the subject.
The article dwells on the organization and activities of the Soviet advisors group, which assisted to the South China government of Sun Yatsen, its participation in financing Kuomintang political and military projects. The author pointed out that the main aim of the advisors group efforts was to form new Kuomintang power institutions and to bring its policy and army under control, for all that the tactics of implementation of strategy aim were constantly changing.
The army which enabled China to be united under the flags of Kuomintang party in 1928, the most prominent representatives of the military and political elites of Kuomintang and the Communist party of China; fractions and influential groups, intelligence organizations, propaganda apparatus, mass public organisations, a complex web of professional, party and "informal" networking between the representatives of rival political forces - all of those were brought about by the officer school known as Huangpu, established in 1924 by Chinese revolutionaries with a financial and organizational support from Moscow. The book is meant for social scientists, students studying social sciences and a wide range of readers interested in history.
The authorbelieves that the turning point in the career of Chiang kai-shek, who had no significant authority in China's political and military circles in the early 1920s, was when he became the head of "Doctor's Sun Yat-sen's Delegation" which visited Moscow in the autumn of the mission helped Chiang Kai-shek take the post of the Commandantof the Whampoa Military Academy and subsequently set up military units under his command.