Устойчивое развитие Москвы и экосистемные функции ее природных территорий
How to evaluate the history of Moscow and the prospects of its future comprehensive development from the standpoint of the modern understanding of the concept of sustainable development? What’s the importance of natural and green areas of the city in terms of its ecosystem services role? Even acrude guess shows that Moscow has long been living at the expense of the surrounding regions’ nature. Green areas of the city cannot cope with anthropogenic load and need not only maintaining but also significant improving of their condition, which would allow them to implement functions, important for us effectively and to refrain from repetition of the sad experience of the hot 2010-year summer. All this determines the extreme urgency of developing approaches to ensure sustainable development of Moscow
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
The 14th International Conference of the Russian Society for Ecological Economics RSEE-2017 will be devoted to the discussion of topical issues in the field of sustainable development of countries and regions, methodology and practices of establishing and developing the economic mechanisms of environmental management and protection. Topics include taxation of the use of natural resources and environmental impact, assessment and abatement of accumulated environmental damage, development of environmental target programs, management of ecological and economic systems, the problems of interactions between governmentt, business and society, environmental security.
The book aims to trace and explain the historical evolution of Moscow, the capital of the Tsardom of Russia, Soviet Union and Russian Federation, as a political entity and political community, and to understand what place Moscow occupied within the Russian political space and what role it played in Russian political life for centuries until 2018. The authors consistently examine the dramatic political history of the contemporary Russian capital in the Moscow (13th – 17th centuries) and St. Petersburg (18th – 19th centuries) epochs, in the Soviet period, in the post-Soviet era, and identify its key points and the most pivotal events.
The article present of a model of sustainable development of the largest companies in the region and in the territory. The model allows evaluating the sustainable character of a company's development through comparison of the planned and real data, and to discover its non-balanced dynamics.
In the article the necessity of institutional changes on the way to sustainable ecological-economic development and the multidirectional nature of the process is proved. The authors offer the ways of forming effective institutional mechanism. And the features of institutional transformations in Russia are emphasized.
The December protests in Moscow do not represent a “Russian Spring,” “Orange Revolution,” or new version of Perestroika. Rather they have more in common with the Progressive movement that fought corruption in the U.S. during the early part of the twentieth century. The demonstrations made clear that Russian citizens now want to play an active role in their country’s political life.
The practice of dacha subdivision, and garden plot allotment in particular, spread widely during Soviet times, not only within the Russian Federation, but also to other Soviet Republics and even other socialist countries. While in the environs of the many-socialist cities, second homes are actively included into the real estate market and housing supply, Moscow’s suburbs demonstrate their loyalty to the established tradition of seasonal migration between the city and the countryside. This study seeks to address the question how do the shifting from socialist to market economy impact the dacha life-style of the Muscovites and to look into dynamics of the changes in the relations between the city and hinterland since the collapse of the socialist state from dachas’ point of view.
The present article aims to analyze the degree of diffusion of modern international business ethics practices in Russian enterprises.
This illuminating book combines theory and practice to analyze the experiences and impacts of foresight activities in various European countries. It includes case studies with a focus on different societal issues including national development, science and technology, and sustainable development.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.
The paper studies a problem of optimal insurer’s choice of a risk-sharing policy in a dynamic risk model, so-called Cramer-Lundberg process, over infinite time interval. Additional constraints are imposed on residual risks of insureds: on mean value or with probability one. An optimal control problem of minimizing a functional of the form of variation coefficient is solved. We show that: in the first case the optimum is achieved at stop loss insurance policies, in the second case the optimal insurance is a combination of stop loss and deductible policies. It is proved that the obtained results can be easily applied to problems with other optimization criteria: maximization of long-run utility and minimization of probability of a deviation from mean trajectory.