The importance of job characteristics to women’s fertility intentions and behavior in Russia
We assess whether a relationship between employment characteristics and fertility exists in the low-fertility context of Russia. Using multiple data sources (Generations and Gender Survey and the Employment and Education Survey), we study both intentions and transitions to the first and second birth. Our analysis aims to shed light on multiple stages in the reproductive life course of recent cohorts in Russia. In general, we find evidence that reconciliation of work and family roles is related to childbearing; in particular, job characteristics that are considered family-friendly are positively associated with intentions and behavior in Russia. More specifically, we find stronger relationships between job characteristics and having a second birth than the timing of entering parenthood. Although self-employment is positively related to both second parity intentions and conceptions, differences exist between other determinants of intentions and conceptions. Attitudes toward work and family roles appear to be related to fertility intentions to only a small extent and do not mediate relationships between job characteristics and intentions.