Роль графических средств в понимании структуры англоязычного учебного дискурса
The paper deals with the problem of using graphic visuals in English class as a means ofenhancing discourse structure awareness from the psychoeducational perspective. The issue under consideration has become actual in teaching English for Specific Purposes, e.g. Economics in English, as well as Academic English. Discourse structures are basic text models making it possible to fully understand detailed information and carry out a systematic analysis. Appropriate interpretation of diagrams, visual frames, semantic webs, mind-maps and other graphic visuals by means of the OPTIC system implies the use of overview-, parts-, title-, interrelations- and conclusion- components. As in this case theleft and right cerebral hemispheres are involved in the mental process, thinking visually can both expand students’ horizons and raise the chances of containing information inthe long-term memory.
The article is implemented within the cognitive approach and is dedicated to the formation of a substantive core of the polysemantic verb, particularly of the verb of relations in the modern English. The first part of the article presents points of view on the semantic nature - "content plan" - of the word. In the second part of the paper the authors identify the main cognitive mechanisms underlying the formation of meanings of the verb compose, as well as its substantial core that combines all the lexical-semantic variants of a this verb.
The articles considers the cognitive approach as applied to the analysis of new terminology of knowledge management and the examples of frame organization for the given terminology are adduced.
The purpose of developing a cognitive model has been defined as the construction and analysis of simulation models improve interaction between government and business. In line with this objective has been hypothesized that an increase in the efficiency of interaction between business and government increased the values of competition in politics and economics, which in turn are directly related to each other. The latter is not in doubt, since the state of competition in the economy is inextricably linked to the legislative machinery of antitrust restrictions, by which representative bodies suppress or support unfair competition.
The paper analyze a cognitive schemes - from the prototype to the scenario as applied to the management tasks. It is shown that understanding the essence and structure of cognitive schemes as tools for describing and constructing reality allows enriching the notion of scenic and scenario management. Particular attention is paid to the semantic nature of the scenario and the use of different scenario semantics of in solving actual management problems.
Acquired disorders of writing in the Russian language have been reported for more than a century. The study of these disorders reflects the history of Russian neuropsychology and is dominated by the syndrome approach most notably by the writings of Luria. Indeed, our understanding of acquired dysgraphia in Russian speakers is conceptualized according to the classical approach in Modern Russia. In this review, we describe the classical approach and compare it to the cognitive neuropsychological models of writing disorders that are developed to explain dysgraphia in English and in other Western European languages. We argue that the basic theoretical assumptions of the two approaches – cognitive and classical or syndrome approach – share similarities. It is therefore proposed that identification of acquired cases of dysgraphia in Russian could potentially benefit from taking the cognitive neuropsychological perspective. We also conclude that adopting elements of the syndrome approach would substantially enrich the understanding of acquired dysgraphia since these offer an insight into processes not described in the cognitive neuropsychological approach.
Paper presents brief review of cognitive approach in simulation and control. A class of control problems that are advisable to be solved via cognitive simulation is dened. The basic denitions are made. The method for forming strategy of ill-structured problem solution on the base of cognitive models as applies to socio-economic system is presented. Some trends of further development of cognitive approach are denoted.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.