Сравнительный анализ оплаты государственных служащих, проходящих службу в неблагоприятных условиях
There is a number of deficiencies in the current Russian state system of substitution of the increased material and physiological expenditures by civil servants who work in the regions of the Far North or in the areas equated with those in the Far North; who work in the regions of unfavorable climate and ecology; or in the remote regions; or high in the mountains or in arid deserts. They are related to the coefficients disproportions of the regional regulation of civil servants' labor payment, which depends on the type of public service, on the absence of a common system of coefficients, salary increase for military men, public servants and servants in the domestic affairs bodies, which compensate their serving in unfavorable conditions; there is no uniform registration of coefficients and rises in salaries of public servants and servicemen which is necessary for calculating the size of their pensions. The analysis of labor legislation on the matter revealed the contradictions in the payment of public servants, servicemen and workers in the home affairs bodies. The main reason for the contradictions is the absence in Russian legislation of the fundamental statutory act on the regional regulation of labor payments to the employees of the offices and companies situated in such regions, the act that would set up a common (uniform) order for granting guarantees and compensations to an appropriate group of people. Thus, the following conclusion may be drawn: it is necessary that a part of legislatively mandated labor regulations in civil service be passed; a new Federal act of law on the pension provision of the citizens of the RF in public service and their families, common for all types of civil service, be developed and passed.
This monograph aims at analyzing the minimum wage and 'effective contract' legislation in international context, taking into account both historical and modern peculiarities in general and with a particular emphasis on public service. This analysis being performed from a comparative viewpoint, allowed the authors to assess the legislative amendments suggested by the legislator against the labour legislation currently in force. It has also helped to throw light onto the gaps and conflicts in the minimum wage and 'effective contract' regulation and common errors in its enforcement. The authors formulated their own suggestions concerning further legislation development in this field. This monograph was prepared with information support of the "ConsultantPlus" electronic legal database system.
The article considers the priority role of improving public services through the use of modern tools of lean management. The article specified the basic definitions, types and features of public services, methods and tools of government, characterized by administrative regulations and tasks of regulation and standardization of public services. The attention is focused on the high importance and relevance of the research topic in the Russian and foreign practice. The paper carried out an expert assessment of the use of lean management programs in the public sector and the implementation of public services in different countries. The authors have developed the basic principles, evaluation criteria and the key characteristics of lean management programs for improving public service. Based on a study of foreign programs and projects of lean management to improve public services by author’s highlighted features and key differences with the sphere of production and business. The authors systematized categories of key skills and competencies that determine the success of lean management programs to improve public services. It is proposed to use tools of lean management in the Deming cycle of continuous improvement for the implementation of public services. The authors have developed a table determining wastes in administrative and service processes, the authors proposed an express survey of employees, state employees and clients to create value stream maps, carried out mapping the value stream of the public service. The article emphasizes the need to use tools lean management for improving public services in the Russian practice.
The article is devoted to a critically important, in the author’s opinion, issue of the ethical regulation of public servants’ o^ cial behavior. He considers the complex of ethical-legal mechanisms as one of the most eb ective ways in order to correct the obviously unsatisfactory current situation of public life in this c eld. As long as it is not only Russia’s trouble and many other countries pay considerable attention to ethical aspects, the author re] ects the situation in the frames of a broader theoretical position and also addresses the international experience. In particular, he gives much attention to Canada, where the ethical regulation of public service is developed su^ ciently well and the country has achieved serious success in this respect. Ethical codes are considered as «moral navigators» in the contemporary complicated world, because vitality and legitimity of a political system much depends on whether political institutions and behavior of high rank public o^ cials correspond to the prevailed public values and ideals, accord with the norms and standards of public morality, or they do not. A degree of public trust to holders of public posts depends critically on it. \ e administrative ethical codes 31 Obolonsky Alexander V. Ethics and responsibility of dib erent levels and the «ethical infrastructure» that provide their fulc llment have been thoroughly analyzed. Special attention is paid to the role of the leader, to moral self-restrictions of public servants and to exercising control over them. \ e balance between moral and legal norms has been considered in details, as well as the modern situation of Russia in this c eld.
Authors develop a new conceptual approach to the study of corruption and effectiveness of anti-corruption regulations of public service. Basing our hypothesis on the conducted thorough analysis of effective models of conflict of interest at public service, authors assume that there is a “missing factor” in modern corruption studies. This “missing factor” is “corruption market”, particularly, its size, type and nature. Conflict of interest regulations’ aim at controlling key channels of corruption behavior, and corruption market in its turn determines prevailing channels of existing corruption behavior. Thus, misidentification of corruption market’s type is the main reason for failure of anti-corruption policies, no matter how new and effective models are imported.
Corruption market’s size is defined as a number and average price of corruption deals. The nature of corruption market depends on the side, capable of setting the final price of corruption deal. Resulting from institutional characteristics of public administration, corruption markets are either seller’s or buyer’s markets. Seller’s corruption markets are sensible to ethic regulations of public service, and the only effective way of tackling buyer’s corruption markets are “cut-red-tape” reforms and introduction of compliance-based regulation of conflict of interest. Type of corruption market encompasses 3 dimensions: quality of institutions, scope of regulations and degree of regulations. Basing on the introduced model, authors identify and analyze 8 types of existing corruption markets. Each type of corruption market has its own transformational dynamics and, consequently, own opportunities for anti-corruption policies.
A new conceptual model of corruption market evolution is introduced in the article. Transformations of corruption markets depend on several factors. The key factors are personalization of political regime, “new public management” reforms of public administration, populist policies and creation of rentier states, and set up of the Welfare State.
There are results of a legal comparative analysis of legal regulation of the civil service types related to state guaranties (social protection) for civil servants in the article (namely: remuneration of labor and remunerative incentives, discharge of an administrative contract and re-engagement due to attainment of the maximum service age, provision of housing, pension protection). The article makes it clear that the legal regulation of civil servants’ status, state guaranties, rights and duties, restrictions are not enough to comply with the Civil Service Consistency Principle. The main reason for the misbalances and discrepancies of the social protection regulation, depending on civil service types, is redundant powers of different state authorities, starting with the top of the vertical of power- the President of Russia. These powers are implemented in a random way and disorder civil service management. Perspectives of the legal regulation unification of civil service in the area of social protection are under consideration in the article - reception and extrapolation (unification) of legal instruments for the civil service types and levels (federal and regional). The argument for the necessity to set up a Federal Civil Service Body is the need of an organizational provision of reception and unification of legal instruments. The need of redundant powers handover to the Civil Service Body is proved. The respective offers are presented: the centrally managed Civil Service Body, its immediate subordination to the RF president, different forms of civil society participation in its management (e.g. personnel matters).
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.