Переводческое творчество и интуиция
Our deepest conviction is that to teach creativity is possible. We believe that the inner picture of the outer world of each translator as well as the structure of his/her knowledge and associations is subjective and individual; the original structure of knowledge presupposes the emergence of the original creative decision; the task of a professional teacher of translating is obviously to stimulate the student’s ability to involve the so-called “weak associative links” provoking the original creative translation decision. The experience of reflexive thinking is necessary while searching for the right associative “prompt”, “push-stimulus”, “trigger-word” leading to making the translator’s creative choice that finally results in choosing the most acceptable variant of translation minding certain definite conscious methodological steps that are to be made.
Translation, or interpretive and language code conversion of the text, is considered as an independent complex type of speech activity which consists of such stages as perception, understanding and interpretation of the foreign-language text and actual translation, that is selection of language means for the expression of the interpretive version of the original. Considerable attention is paid nowadays to the translations of works of such literary genre as literary fairy tale. Fairy tale is a type of prosaic folklore, which is met in the folklore of various peoples. Not only have literary fairy tales grown on the basis of folklore, but they also inherited its genre characteristics, developing and transforming them. Translation as an interpretive conversion of the text is considered within the concept “secondary text”. The conspicuous feature of secondary texts is the double reference of the word: to its own culture referent and to a foreign culture referent. The secondary text cannot be completely understood and appreciated without its reference to “the second plane”. Subjected to analysis are the problems of preserving original pragmatics in secondary texts. The challenge of national fairy tales translation lies in the discrepancy of cultural concepts of the two nations and in considerable distinctions between the characters of Russian and British national fairy tales. The traditions of Russian national culture and the consistency of grammatical gender expression in the Russian language lead to gender shifts in the translation of English literary fairy tales.
This article is devoted to the application of cross-cultural approach in training future translators to conduct a pre-translation analysis of the text in the source language. The essence of intercultural competence of an interpreter as well as its specific features are determined on the stage of pre-translation analysis of the source text. The author reveals the features and workflow of an interpreter in the process of implementing strategies of intercultural interpretation of the text. The didactic status of strategies for intercultural interpretation regarded as components of the content of the training of future translators is determined.
The issue of the nature of linguistic creativity, interdisciplinary by nature and highly debatable, presents a great number of topical research challenges, and investigating didactic principles of creative translation process has been one of the most empirically resourceful and valuable. Research of creative approaches to translation suggests a novel view compared to the current studies of literary language and literary translation. The creative model of teaching translation offers a novel didactic metalinguistic tool kit of making appropriate professional translation decisions. The author’s term “translation creative occasionalism” is introduced and illustrated in the paper. Developing professional skills of making appropriate linguistic decisions while teaching translation of foreign (in our case English) texts (into Russian) is based on detailed cognitive analysis of parallel discourse segments that finally results in mastering the academic faculties of choosing the correct translation equivalent involving all background knowledge.
The investigation gives the author’s view on teaching creative translation by researching the case of the cognitive political discourse analysis procedure. Of a particular interest is the fact that the research material is based on the example of the discourse analysis of modern political terminology and other non-equivalent vocabulary within the bounds of political contexts. Unlike traditional approaches connecting creativity to literary texts studies, the paper deals with the methodology of comprehending and translating foreign academic and scientific texts. The cognitive study of contextual actualization of political concepts in the English and Russian discourses through their comparative analysis is aimed at professional explanation of motivation in choosing translation equivalents. The algorithm of making up an associative thesaurus based on cognitive signs of lexical marking has been used as the major tool of political discourse analysis as well as the foundation for the original creative model of teaching translation.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.