### Article

## Planck constant as spectral parameter in integrable systems and KZB equations

We construct special rational gl N Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard (KZB) equations with Ñ punctures by deformation of the corresponding quantum gl N rational R-matrix. They have two parameters. The limit of the first one brings the model to the ordinary rational KZ equation. Another one is τ. At the level of classical mechanics the deformation parameter τ allows to extend the previously obtained modified Gaudin models to the modified Schlesinger systems. Next, we notice that the identities underlying generic (elliptic) KZB equations follow from some additional relations for the properly normalized R-matrices. The relations are noncommutative analogues of identities for (scalar) elliptic functions. The simplest one is the unitarity condition. The quadratic (in R matrices) relations are generated by noncommutative Fay identities. In particular, one can derive the quantum Yang-Baxter equations from the Fay identities. The cubic relations provide identities for the KZB equations as well as quadratic relations for the classical r-matrices which can be treated as halves of the classical Yang-Baxter equation. At last we discuss the R-matrix valued linear problems which provide gl Ñ CM models and Painlevé equations via the above mentioned identities. The role of the spectral parameter plays the Planck constant of the quantum R-matrix. When the quantum gl N R-matrix is scalar (N = 1) the linear problem reproduces the Krichever’s ansatz for the Lax matrices with spectral parameter for the gl Ñ CM models. The linear problems for the quantum CM models generalize the KZ equations in the same way as the Lax pairs with spectral parameter generalize those without it.

We establish the equivalence between the refined topological vertex of Iqbal-Kozcaz-Vafa and a certain representation theory of the quantum algebra of type W1+∞ introduced by Miki. Our construction involves trivalent intertwining operators Φ and Φ* associated with triples of the bosonic Fock modules. Resembling the topological vertex, a triple of vectors ∈ Z2 is attached to each intertwining operator, which satisfy the Calabi-Yau and smoothness conditions. It is shown that certain matrix elements of Φ and Φ* give the refined topological vertex Cλμν (t, q) of Iqbal-Kozcaz-Vafa. With another choice of basis, we recover the refined topological vertex Cλμν (q, t) of Awata-Kanno. The gluing factors appears correctly when we consider any compositions of Φ and Φ*. The spectral parameters attached to Fock spaces play the role of the Kahler parameters.

We use the Whittaker vectors and the Drinfeld Casimir element to show that eigenfunctions of the difference Toda Hamiltonian can be expressed via fermionic formulas. Motivated by the combinatorics of the fermionic formulas we use the representation theory of the quantum groups to prove a number of identities for the coefficients of the eigenfunctions.

The prepotentials for the quiver supersymmetric gauge theories are defined as quasiclassical tau-functions, depending on two different sets of variables: the parameters of the UV gauge theory or the bare compexified couplings, and the vacuum condensates of the theory in IR. The bare couplings are introduced as periods on the UV base curve, and the consistency of corresponding gradient formulas for the tau-functions is proven using the Riemann bilinear relations. It is shown, that dependence of generalised prepotentials for the quiver gauge theories upon the bare couplings turns to coincide with the corresponding formulas for the derivatives of tau-functions for the isomonodromic deformations. Computations for the SU(2) quiver gauge theories with bi- and tri-fundamental matter are performed explicitly and analysed in the context of 4d/2d correspondence

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.