Нужны ли российским компаниям новые рейтинги
Analysis of the problem of predicting bankruptcy shows that foreign and domestic models included only internal factors of enterprises. But the same indicators of internal factors in the rapidly changing external environment can lead to bankruptcy, and in others not. External factors are the most dangerous, because the possible influence on them is minimal and the impact of their implementation can be devastating. This paper aims to - on the same factors to assess the impact of the Russian enterprises account macroeconomic indicators (external factors) on the parameters of static models predict a local approximation of the crisis at the plant. To accomplish the purpose of the database was compiled Spark set of 100 companies, including 50 companies officially declared bankrupt in the period 2000-2009 and 50 stable operating companies with a random sample of the same time period. External factors were extracted from the Joint Economic and Social Data Archive . The author compared two data set: (1) microeconomic indicators—money to the total liabilities, retained earnings to total assets, net profit to revenue, Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) to assets, net income to equity, net profit to total liabilities, current liabilities to total assets, the totality of short-term and long-term loans to total assets, current assets to current liabilities, assets to revenue, equity to total assets, current assets to revenue; and (2) external factors—index of real gross domestic product (GDP), industrial production index, the index of real cash incomes, an index of real investments, consumer price index, the refinancing rate, unemployment rate, the price of electricity, gas prices, oil price, gas price, dollar to ruble, ruble euro Standard & Poor (S&P) index, the Russian Trading System (RTS) index, and region. The aim of the comparison results paging classes “insolvent” and “non-bankrupt” is achieved using two methods: classification and discrimination. In both methods, computational procedures are realized with the use of algorithms: linear regression, artificial neural network, and genetic algorithm. In the 2-m model, data set includes both internal and external factors. The results showed that the inclusion of only the microeconomic indicators, excluding external factors impedes models about 2 times.
The role of indexes and ratings in evaluating the condition and prospects of development is shown. The impact of external factors is analysed The importance of manufacturing characteristics of companies is stressed. The necessity to create national ratings is discussed.
Certain altruistic phenomena in the workplace that exceed the bounds of contract theory can be explained within the framework of gift exchange theory. We discuss the application of gift exchange theory to interactions between an employer and an employee as well as between employees themselves. We emphasize the opportunities of gifts to improve coordination and contract efficiency in the workplace and argue that there exists the productive function of gifts. We use the framework of a market for externalities in order to demonstrate that given the interrelated activities of agents a gift exchange between them can lead to Pareto improvement.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
портовый менеджмент, показатели деятельности, анализ эффективности, система учета, распределение издержек, методы анализа деятельности портовой системы
At present many industries reveal tendency for setting up of vertically integrated companies (VIC) the structure of which unites all technological processes. This tendency proved its efficiency in oil industry where coordination of all successive stages of technological process, namely, oil prospecting and production -oil transportation - oil processing - oil chemistry - oil products and oil chemicals marketing, is necessary. The article considers specific features of introduction of "personnel management" module at enterprises of oil and gas industry.
vertically integrated companies; personnel management