Youth labour market performances in the Russian and Italian regions
The focus of this paper is on youth unemployment in Italy and Russia: in both countries, youth unemployment rates (YURs) are higher than adult (or total) ones. Despite these general trends, there are significant regional differences in YURs and above-average YUR regions tend to cluster close to each other. Moreover, a distinction between “North” and “South” regions seems appropriate for both countries. The purpose of this study is to identify key determinants of YURs in the Russian and Italian regions, for the period 2000–2009. We also search for the existence of distance spatial effects. In particular, we estimate a modified Arellano–Bond model for the regional YUR, including some explanatory and control variables (e.g. regional GDP in PPP, regional population density, regional total unemployment rate), together with year dummies and North/South dummies. The use of distance matrixes enables important analysis to be conducted on the role played by spatial effects, which turn out to be significant. Also the negative impact of the 2008–2009 crisis is statistically confirmed (at least in the case of Italy). The relevant policy implications are highlighted in the conclusions.
Youth are, by definition, the future. This book brings initial analyses to bear on youth in the five BRICS countries: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, which are home to nearly half of the world's youth. Very little is known about these youth outside of their own countries since the mainstream views on "youth" and "youth culture" are derived from the available literature on youth in the industrialized West, which is home to a small part of the world's youth. This book aims to help fill in this gap.
The handbook examines the state of youth, their past, present and permits the development of insights about future. The BRICS countries have all engaged in development processes and some remarkable improvements in young people's lives over recent decades are documented. However, the chapters also show that these gains can be undermined by instabilities, poor decisions and external factors in those countries. Periods of economic growth, political progress, cultural opening up and subsequent reversals rearticulate differently in each society. The future of youth is sharply impacted by recent transformations of economic, political and social realities. As new opportunities emerge and the influence of tradition on youth's lifestyles weakens and as their norms and values change, the youth enter into conflict with dominant expectations and power structures.
The topics covered in the book include politics, education, health, employment, leisure, Internet, identities, inequalities and demographics. The chapters provide original insights into the development of the BRICS countries, and place the varied mechanisms of youth development in context. This handbook serves as a reference to those who are interested in having a better understanding of today's youth. Readers will become acquainted with many issues that are faced today by young people and understand that through fertile dialogues and cooperation, youth can play a role in shaping the future of the world.
The purpose of the work is to assess the dependence between demographic and environmental indicators in Russian regions. The research includes collection of the data on a number of demographic, socio-economic and environmental indicators for 76 regions of Russia for 2015; building and estimation of the regression model and spatial effects. According to the results, the deterioration of demographic indicators on average is caused by low quality of drinking and domestic use water and excess of pollutants MPC in the atmospheric air.
Youth unemployment and joblessness are major issues for national governments and international organizations across the globe. In this respect, the school-to-work transition challenge is increasingly raising the interest of companies, education and training institutions, families and young people themselves, who are often involved in precarious and illegal forms of employment worldwide. In the field of industrial and labour relations, the school-to-work perspective seems particularly suitable for policy formulation and assessment: the broad and complex range of tools, strategies and policies for enabling youth training and their access to the labour market is deserving of a closer analysis at an international level in a time when jobless recovery threatens national economies. In this connection, this volume of the "Adapt Labour Studies Book-Series" has been set up with a view for achieving a better understanding of the causes, consequences and possible responses to the issue in a global dimension through an interdisciplinary and comparative approach.
The general properties of the hopping transport of charge carriers in amorphous organic and inorganic materials are discussed. The case where the random energy landscape in the material is strongly spatially correlated is considered. This situation is typical of organic materials with the Gaussian density of states (DOS) and may also be realized in some materials with the exponential DOS. It is demonstrated that the different DOS types can lead to very different functional forms of the mobility field dependence even for the identical correlation function of random energy. Important arguments are provided in favor of the significant contribution of the local orientational order to the total magnitude of energetic disorder in organic materials. A simple but promising model of charge transport in highly anisotropic composites materials is proposed.
The purpose of this study is to identify the common and different determinants of youth unemployment in Eastern and Western regions of Russia, especially searching for the existence of spatial effects. We tested two main hypotheses. The first hypothesis consists in the existence of a difference between the processes occurring within the Western and Eastern regions and an asymmetry of the processes of influence of Western and Eastern regions on each other. Our second hypothesis is based on the differences in the determinants of youth unemployment in the Eastern and Western parts of Russia. To test these hypotheses, dynamic panel models were estimated by the Arellano–Bond method. These models included four boundary weighted matrices (west-west, east-east, west-east, east-west) and four types of explanatory variables: (i) variables characterising the demographic situation in a region; (ii) variables on the migration processes in a region; (iii) variables characterising the economic situation in a region; and (iv) variables on the export-import activity of a region. Although we were searching for structural determinants of youth unemployment and for spatial effects in East and West Russia, we also investigated the effect of the 2008-09 financial crisis. The main policy implications of the econometric results have been briefly considered in the final section.
This paper focuses on the determinants of the labor market situation of young people in developed countries and the developing world, with a particular emphasis on the role of vocational training and education policies. We highlight the role of demographic factors, economic growth and labor market institutions in explaining young people's transition into work. Subsequently, we assess differences between the setup and functioning of the vocational education and training policies across major world regions as an important driver of differential labor market situation of youth. Based on our analysis, we argue in favor of vocational education and training systems combining work experience and general education and provide some policy recommendations regarding the implementation of education and training systems adapted to a country's economic and institutional context.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.