### Article

## k-symplectic structures and absolutely trianalytic subvarieties in hyperkahler manifolds

Let (M,I,J,K) be a hyperkahler manifold, and Z⊂(M,I) a complex subvariety in (M,I). We say that Z is trianalytic if it is complex analytic with respect to J and K, and absolutely trianalytic if it is trianalytic with respect to any hyperk\"ahler triple of complex structures (M,I,J′,K′) containing I. For a generic complex structure I on M, all complex subvarieties of (M,I) are absolutely trianalytic. It is known that a normalization Z′ of a trianalytic subvariety is smooth; we prove that b2(Z′) is no smaller than b2(M) when M has maximal holonomy (that is, M is IHS). To study absolutely trianalytic subvarieties further, we define a new geometric structure, called k-symplectic structure; this structure is a generalization of the hypersymplectic structure. A k-symplectic structure on a 2d-dimensional manifold X is a k-dimensional space R of closed 2-forms on X which all have rank 2d or d. It is called non-degenerate if the set of all degenerate forms in R is a smooth, non-degenerate quadric hypersurface in R. We consider absolutely trianalytic tori in a hyperkahler manifold M of maximal holonomy. We prove that any such torus is equipped with a non-degenerate k-symplectic structure, where k=b2(M). We show that the tangent bundle TX of a k-symplectic manifold is a Clifford module over a Clifford algebra Cl(k−1). Then an absolutely trianalytic torus in a hyperkahler manifold M with b2(M)≥2r+1 is at least 2r−1-dimensional.

We discuss some well-known facts about Clifford algebras: matrix representations, Cartan’s periodicity of 8, double coverings of orthogonal groups by spin groups, Dirac equation in different formalisms, spinors in <span data-mathml="nn dimensions, etc. We also present our point of view on some problems. Namely, we discuss the generalization of the Pauli theorem, the basic ideas of the method of averaging in Clifford algebras, the notion of quaternion type of Clifford algebra elements, the classification of Lie subalgebras of specific type in Clifford algebra, etc.

The Kobayashi pseudometric on a complex manifold is the maximal pseudometric such that any holomorphic map from the Poincaré disk to the manifold is distance-decreasing. Kobayashi has conjectured that this pseudometric vanishes on Calabi–Yau manifolds. Using ergodicity of complex structures, we prove this for all hyperkähler manifold with b_2\geqslant 7 that admits a deformation with a Lagrangian fibration and whose Picard rank is not maximal. The Strominger-Yau-Zaslow (SYZ) conjecture claims that parabolic nef line bundles on hyperkähler manifolds are semi-ample. We prove that the Kobayashi pseudometric vanishes for any hyperkähler manifold with b_2\geqslant 7 if the SYZ conjecture holds for all its deformations. This proves the Kobayashi conjecture for all K3 surfaces and their Hilbert schemes.

Let M be a closed symplectic manifold of volume V. We say that M admits an unobstructed symplectic packing by balls if any collection of symplectic balls (of possibly different radii) of total volume less than V admits a symplectic embedding to M. In 1994 McDuff and Polterovich proved that symplectic packings of Kahler manifolds can be characterized in terms of the Kahler cones of their blow-ups. When M is a Kahler manifold which is not a union of its proper subvarieties (such a manifold is called Campana simple) these Kahler cones can be described explicitly using the Demailly and Paun structure theorem. We prove that any Campana simple Kahler manifold, as well as any manifold which is a limit of Campana simple manifolds in a smooth deformation, admits an unobstructed symplectic packing by balls. This is used to show that all even-dimensional tori equipped with Kahler symplectic forms and all hyperkahler manifolds of maximal holonomy admit unobstructed symplectic packings by balls. This generalizes a previous result by Latschev-McDuff-Schlenk. We also consider symplectic packings by other shapes and show, using Ratner's orbit closure theorem, that any even-dimensional torus equipped with a Kahler form whose cohomology class is not proportional to a rational one admits a full symplectic packing by any number of equal polydisks (and, in particular, by any number of equal cubes).

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.