Экономика дефицитного финансирования: сколько стоит ликвидность?
The article introduces business liquidity concept as the third (in addition to risk and return metrics) determinant of company performance. The issues discussed include the analysis of key liquidity elements and the influence of agency costs, uncertainty and market incompleteness on financial decisions. We analyze in details the firm liquidity model based on the assumption of negative marginal rate of substitution between business value and liquidity in the situation of scarce external financing.
This article presents an engineering approach to estimating market resiliency based on analysis of the dynamics of a liquidity index. The method provides formal criteria for defining a “liquidity shock” on the market and can be used to obtain resiliency-related statistics for further research and estimation of this liquidity aspect. The developed algorithm uses the results of a spline approximation for observational data and allows a theoretical interpretation of the results. The method was applied to real data resulting in estimation of market resiliency for the given period.
The paper presents a review of stochastic framework for term structure modeling and shows comparative advantages of commonly used techniques. The main application of the research is coherent modeling of credit and interest rate risk for Euro zone issuers.
The article gives an overview of influence of stock market discrimination on market value of companies in China. There are two types of shares on Chinese stock market: class A shares, which are available for domestic investors, and class B shares, which are available for foreign investors. Such market structure is not a unique Chinese market's feature. It is also used in such countries as Finland, Singapore, Switzerland, Thailand, etc. What differs Chinese market from markets with similar structure is the fact that class B shares are traded with substantial discount to class A shares. Such a situation is explained by such factors informational asymmetry between domestic and foreign investors; different liquidity of different classes of shares; diversification effect, connected with investment in Chinese stock market; size of companies; ratio of amounts of shares of different classes; stock exchange where company's shares are traded.
The debt-to-equity choice has always been one of the crucial decisions of the firm’s management. The capital structure is vital for the appropriate development of relationships among the company’s stakeholders. The conflicts of interests between management and shareholders and creditors as well as conflicts between other groups of stakeholders lead to the appearance of agency costs that decrease the corporate value. The role of agency costs is even higher in emerging markets due to higher information asymmetry, lower development of legal system, investors’ protection rights and corporate governance. Our paper contributes to the literature by analyzing the agency costs and capital structure choice on the data of emerging markets companies. Our sample consists of more than 150 companies from BRICS and Eastern Europe within 2000-2010. By conducting the empirical analysis based on both linear panel data regressions as well as simultaneous modeling of leverage choice and management shareholding we obtain the following results. The agency costs are relevant for debt-to-equity choice in Russia, India, China and Eastern Europe but the results are not so obvious in Brazil where financing policy could be explained by trade-off theory. We found out the non-linear relationship between financial leverage and management shareholding which is also in line with agency costs significance. Moreover we revealed that agency costs define long-term leverage, but cannot explain short-term debt in emerging markets. Further, we concluded that debt ratios based on market value of equity are not affected by agency costs opposite to capital structure variables based on book value of equity.
Liquidity is an important characteristic for any bond, but now in the literature there are no models for estimating the liquidity premium. Moreover, there is not even an exact definition of this notion. There are many facts proving the existence of the liquidity premium in the bond market. One of such fact, for example, is the difference between values of the bond spread and the credit default swap (CDS) premium. Following the Longstaff (2005) study, often, in practice, CDS data are used for the estimation of the pure credit risk of the underlying bond and henc for the separation of the bond risk premium from the liquidity premium and credit risk premium. However, the fact that CDS premium can be used for the pure credit risk measurement is a disputable proposition. The purpose of this paper is to make recommendations on the applicability of such approach for assessing liquidity premium. In this paper the risks associated with CDS transactions will be considered.Also, different approaches for assessing the liquidity bond premium and liquidity CDS premium will be reviewed as well as the correlation of these quantitites. We will see that the CDS premium does not measure the pure credit component of the bond spread.
Argentina, the second largest country in Latin America, hardly recovered form the recession of the year 2001, faces the crisis again in 2008. First of all, the crisis affected the credit and banking sphere of the country, reducing the volumes of credit and deposit. But during the crisis, Argentina managed to carry out the restructuring of the financial system. The Global financial and economic crisis has shown the importance of the investors' confidence.