Historians in search of new ways at the border of the centuries
The paper analyses the radical transformations that took place in the theoretical foundations, methodology and conceptual models of historical science at the border of the XX - XXI centuries. The changes in research strategies of recent historiography are considered as an outcome of the fruitful interaction of different disciplines in the common space of social sciences and humanities. The author estimates the cognitive potential of new theoretical models aiming to restore the integrity of historical vision of the past.
The article focuses on the most famous Russian pre-modern autobiography The Life by protopope Avvakum (1621/22–1682) to discuss his wife Natas’ja Markovna as one of its essential characters. Being the leader of the movement against religious reform in the seventeenth century Russia, Avvakum composed his life story in accordance with hagiographical canon of the martyr to send a propaganda message to his followers. The figure of Natas’ja Markovna in his text also works for this aim. In accordance with women’s hagiographic canon she is portrayed as wife and mother completely subjected to her husband’s will and doomed to share all hardships of his life. Though Avvakum’s autobiography was widely read, this religious/social context was often understood as insignificant for understanding its meanings. The same is true for the figure of the protopopica, which was used by Russian scholars and writers of the twentieth century to establish a canon of the model wife.
Studies of post-war Soviet historiography are heavily concentrated around the issues of party control in and resistance of intellectuals. Giving an account of the historical periodicals author seeks to correct this approach in the perspective of the history of science, sociology of culture and cultural policy studies . The article addresses 1) the problem of definition and characteristics of the transformation of the corpus of historical periodicals in the 1950s - 1960s, and 2) interrelation of the new political, economical and media conditions and changes in the management practices and communication strategies of the academic periodicals .
The book "Methodology of modern history: a historiographical review" is devoted to an important and almost not covered in the Russian scientific literature subject - the methodology of historical study of the recent past. Contemporary history occupies an increasingly strong position within the framework of historical science. This forces historians to address the problem of the uniqueness of modernity as an object of historical analysis. Based on the materials of the latest publications in the Western scientific literature, the authors draw a wide range of basic approaches developed by modern Western historiography in relation to the possibility of knowledge and scientific study of the recent past. The book examines the formation and development of contemporary history as a scientific direction within the framework of historical science. The main sections of the book are devoted to such issues as the chronology of modern history, writing history without archival materials in a significant expansion of the source base, politicization and subjectivity of the historian as an obstacle for the scientific analysis, the interdisciplinary aspect of the study of contemporary history, science of history and the memory category. The publication is provided with a detailed scientific reference apparatus and is addressed to teachers and students of historical faculties, as well as to anyone interested in the methodology and philosophy of history.
The cognitive history paradigm proposed by the prominent Russian scientist is a new research strategy in modern humanities. The crucial element of this concept is an idea of the “intellectual product” as the material evidence and proof of human purpose-oriented activity in history and a universal instrument of cultural exchange across historical periods and political borders. By the using of this concept social scientists obtain the possibility to establish a new methodology of verified historical studies.