This article analyzes grass-root politics in the Russian Civil War, challenging the traditional assumption that the Bolsheviks with their program of radical revolutionary change enjoyed greater popularity than their White adversaries. On the example of the Northern region, it demonstrates that the local «counter-revolutionary» government commanded considerable sympathies of the provincial population. This popularity was based on the government's ability to supply the population of this non-agricultural province with imported grain, to provide military protection and arms for self-defense. Ultimately, the article strives to explain the outcome of the Civil War not by conflicting ideologies and policies, but by practical circumstances and local factors that on a grass-root level conditioned changing political loyalties.
Drawing upon exegetical and scientific writings of Isaac Newton, his followers (W. Whiston) and opponents (Ch. Burnet), present study deals with the rise of objectivism – fundamental epistemic principle underlying the modern scientific worldview. The study is focused upon the synthesis of three epistemological principles, which shaped the science of Enlightenment: hermeneutic transparency of text in exegesis, mathematical certainty in natural science, and realistic mimesis in literary criticism. The author also examines the epistemological project, opposed to objectivistic paradigm, that puts together allegory in biblical scholarship, hypothetical method in physic and the primacy of literariness over referentiality in literary theory. Present article seeks to contribute to the genealogy of objective reality – ontological a priori of the modern scientific thought, emerged from the confusion of methodologies and discourses, characteristic to early Modern Times.