Сравнение деклараций независимости США и стран Испанской Америки: к постановке проблемы
The article is devoted to the comparison between the declarations of independence of the United States and of Spanish American nations. The full list of Spanish American declarations of independence is compiled for the first time in historiography. The questions raised in this proposed comparison bring a scholar to the major issues of the independence movements in the New World (and in the end, to the discussion of the nature of British and Spanish colonial societies in America) and thus – do not have clear and final answers.
Based on rich and diverse sources, including the U.S. archives, the article researches the place of the United States of America in life and revolutionary projects of the Precursor of the Spanish American independence Francisco de Miranda (1750-1816). It is argued that the circle of Miranda's friends and supporters in the United States was Federalist in spirit - contrary to a widely held notion that foreign revolutions drew support from the Jeffersonian National Republican milieu. The article analyses the 1797/1799 plan of the Anglo-American union against France and Spain in the name of the Spanish American independence and the annexation of Louisiana and Florida by the United States. This plan was elaborated by Miranda and supported by Alexander Hamilton. The precise date of one of Miranda's constitutional projects is clarified (1797, not 1798). For the first time in world historiography the article reconstructs the New York draft of soldiers for the Miranda's Venezuela expedition of 1806. The history of this expedition is also reconstructed in details.
In the second of ten Lectures on Political Right, delivered in Madrid’s Ateneo in November 29, 1836, Juan Donoso Cortés considers the notion of “popular sovereignty.” Distinguishing mind and will as two parts of human essence, Donoso deduces from the former the “law of the association” that unites all human beings, and from the latter, the “law of the individual,” that separates them. Hence, the main problem for Donoso as a liberal conservative is how to combine these two laws. Donoso states that while traditionalists propose to focus on the “law of the association” and ends with tyranny that destroys free will, revolutionaries, by contrast, focus on the “law of the individual,” which leads to anarchy as a variant of the same tyranny. In making a historical digression to the periods of the Roman Empire and the Middle Ages, Donoso shows how the revolutionary idea of “popular sovereignty”, linked directly to the “law of the individual”, gradually overcomes the idea of “divine right of kings”, based on the “law of the association.” Donoso criticizes the English and French philosophers of the 17–18th centuries (Hobbes and Rousseau, above all) the most, as these philosophers laid the foundation for historical drama of the Great French Revolution. Offering his own liberal-conservative alternative for the two named extremes (traditionalism and revolution), Donoso calls to abandon the “atheist”, “immoral”, “absurd”, and “impossible” “popular sovereignty”, and combine the “law of the individual” and the “law of the association” on entirely different basis of the “sovereignty of reason, sovereignty of justice”.
The article is devoted to the disintegration of the Spanish Empire - the revolution in its American lands, and the Madrid reaction to the independence of Spanish America.
Materials in this issue cover four centuries of American history. Central unit dedicated to the 80th anniversary of academician Nikolai Bolkhovitinov and illuminates the historical vicissitudes of "Russian America" and the Russian-American relations . Of particular interest is the discussion between the famous American scholar Richard Pipes and domestic historians over the U.S. role in the Russian -Japanese war of 1904-1905 . In an article on domestic political topics U.S. highlights contentious issues of economic and social history of the United States. Series explores the perception of U.S. materials in different regions of the world. External articles discuss various aspects of the relationship the United States and Latin America, the attitude of the American Society for globalist aspirations of their country. A number of articles devoted to the history of Canada and South America. In the " Bibliography " includes works on the history of the United States and Canada, published in Russian in 2008-2010 .
"American Yearbook 2011" presented articles of Russian and American authors on various issues of U.S. history , Canada and Latin America , the history of Russian -American relations and Russian America. Published bibliography of works on the history of the United States and Canada which were published in Russian in 2009-2011. For historians, political scientists , and anyone interested in the history of America.
Encyclopedia of U.S.-Latin American Relations is a comprehensive, three-volume, A-to-Z reference featuring more than 800 entries detailing the political, economic and military interconnections between the United States and the countries of Latin America, including Mexico and the nations in Central America, the Caribbean and South America.
No previous work has covered the web of important players, places and events that have shaped the history of the United States' relations with its neighbours to the south. From the Monroe Doctrine through today's tensions with Latin America's new leftist governments, this history is rich in case studies of diplomatic, economic and military cooperation and contentiousness.
Colonial period of American history knows the eleven names of women-printers. Two of them, Sarah Apdike and Mary Katherine Goddard – mother and daughter, produced weekly newspapers in Providence( Rhode Island), Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) and Baltimore (Maryland). Mary Goddard did very important job of printing of Declaration of Independence in 1777, because of being publisher of leading newspaper in Baltimore, where Congress moved. A year earlier she had accepted the appointment as Baltimore’s postmaster. She was one of only a handful of women to hold public appointments during the 1700s and the first woman to serve as a postmaster in the United States.
In the article are : the social bases of power as a nation, the nation, the elite, the elemental forces of the political market. It is noted that the idealistic view on social grounds authorities do not correspond to modern realities. Long enough described expenses provisions on the management Board of the nation. It is proposed to consider the rationalist approach in the determination of the constitutions of the social bases of power. The examples of the constitutions of a number of foreign States, in which the provisions of popular sovereignty is not understood completely. Russia proposes changing approaches to understanding the essence of popular sovereignty and representative government.