Политика устойчивого развития
On the basis of in-depth case studies of four Russian regions, Kirov and Voronezh oblasts and Krasnoyarsk and Perm' krais, the trade-offs among social and economic policy at the regional level in Russia are examined. All four regional governments seek to develop entrepreneurship while preserving social welfare obligations and improving compensation in the public sector. Richer regions have a greater ability to reconcile social commitments with the promotion of business. Regions differ in their development strategies, some placing greater emphasis on indigenous business development and others seeking to attract federal or foreign investment. Governors have considerable discretion in choosing their strategy so long as they meet basic performance demands set by the federal government such as ensuring good results for the United Russia party. In all four regions, governments consult actively with local business associations whereas organized labor is weak. However, the absence of effective institutions to enforce commitments undertaken by government and its social partners undermines regional capacity to use social policy as a basis for long-term economic development.
The article discusses the issues of sustainable development. The implementation of the sustainable development concept involves the integration of different levels of government and bringing the approach to the level of business and individual projects.A company may have a different degree of economic stability, the measurement of which can be accomplished through the analysis of the cost structure of the product sold, including the costs of maintaining the environment. Evaluation of the project can be carried out taking into account the levels of initiation and levels of its impact on sustainable development. We propose a method of evaluation that allows taking into account all three aspects: economic, social and environmental.In the process of assessing the sustainability of the project it is advisable to take into account the full life cycle.The article shows how to take into account the parameters that characterize the activity and the product produced by the asset. By themselves, the project or the circumstances of its implementation could result in your loss of stability of the system in which it is located. It is recommended to evaluate the loss of stability in private terms, and as a whole for the project — based on the calculation of the integral indicator.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.