Субъекты правоотношений, связанных с договором международного займа
The article contains analysis of legal relations arising out of international loan agreements. The author describes particularities of legal status and involvement into the said relations of individuals, foreign commercial banks, international banks, states and third parties. The author analyses various sources of international and national law. Particular attention is paid to the problems in Russian court practice arising in connection with involvement of foreign banks in lending within the territory of the Russian Federation.
Natural gas demand growth has been increasing for the past decades. The us, China and India are becoming large gas importers, without mentioning the eu. The chase for cleaner environment drives developed countries into the "gas-or-nuclear" corner, and most of them go for the gas option, while their developing peers may not have a second option at all. The eu and the us gas production is declining, and they are becoming, therefore, increasingly dependent on imports. Most other big gas consumers are initially dependent due to not having their own natural gas reserves. In the meantime, the world leading gas producing countries already want to coordinate their actions. The issues such as gas pricing, directions of exports, coordination of volumes and new project development are in focus of their attention. The importers, on the other hand, have good reasons to be afraid of such alliance and the "gas weapon" – ironically, most of the major gas producers and reserves-holders are Middle-East Arabic countries, some of which are already members of oil cartel.
A Chapter is devoted to the prerequisites, priorities and prospects of development of regional integration of Russia in the post-Soviet space and in the world, and also the problems of the country's participation in international organizations. It also considers the issues of participation of Russia in WTO.
Born in response to the economic and financial crisis which existing institutions were unable to address adequately, G20 transformed from a crisis management group into the premier forum for international economic cooperation. Like its predecessor G7 set up in 1975 and BRICS established in 2009 G20 is an informal club or summit institution. To ensure continuity, legitimacy and efficiency in fulfilling their global governance functions of deliberation, direction-setting, decision-making, delivery and global governance development G20 members engage other international organizations. It is hypothesized that to maximize benefits from its engagement with international organizations G20 resorts to a combination of the “catalyst”, “core group” and “parallel treatment” approaches exercised by summit institutions: exerting an influence for international organizations’ changes through endorsement or stimulus, or compelling them to reform; imparting a new direction by giving a lead that the other organizations would follow; and creating its own mechanisms. The article tests this assumption. To trace the dynamics of G20 engagement with multilateral organizations and identify preferred models across the presidencies and policy areas the analysis is carried out within the rational choice institutionalist paradigm drawing on quantitative and qualitative analysis of documents adopted by G20.
Findings from the study indicate that the intensity of the G20 engagement with the IOs is very high and G20 mostly resorts to a combination of the catalyst and core group approaches, though the pattern depends on the policy area, the IOs and the presidency agenda. Intensity of G20 engagement with the IMF, Financial Stability Board, World Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development by far exceeds the intensity of its interaction with the other institutions. The UN comes only seventh in the G20 discourse by the share and intensity of references. There are very few cases of parallel treatment and most of them are in the sphere of infrastructure investment which can be interpreted as G20 response to a persistent gap in the demand and supply for infrastructure investment and governance leadership in this area. Thus in implementing the forum mission and functions G20 prefer to engage with key international organizations acting as “a hub of a global network”.
The article starts with a brief overview of the study analytical paradigm and methodology. It then proceeds to examine the dynamics and modes of G20 engagement with international organizations across a wide spectrum of policy areas. The final section summaries and concludes.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.