Многозначные слова в контексте и вне контекста
The paper discusses various techniques of discovering and describing lexical ambiguity. This is one of the top issues in computational linguistics. A variety of techniques are used for word sense disambiguation, but all of them are based on context. Yet, studying how word senses work without context and what patterns of polysemous words could be found in speakers’ minds also seems an interesting and important issue. The main approaches to WSD with or without context (in narrow and broad sense, including the situational context) are evaluated. The importance of corpora in discovering word senses is substantiated. New experimental data are presented, which allow defining subsets of senses for polysemous words for different speakers and rating the senses in the dictionary. Finally, the paper proposes to distinguish between absolute and relative polysemy and to search for ways of their adequate lexicographic description.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.