Refining the theory of basic individual values
This article is devoted to refined value theory. Reprinted in Chinese.
Problems of organizational values forming and using them in human resources management are broadly examined in Russian and international studies. However, there is a distinct lack of publications on the issues of values management in hospitality and tourism industry: values are considered mainly within the context of formation and change of organizational culture. Research focused on the values management in travel companies has been hardly conducted. Meanwhile, as the Russian tourism and hospitality industry is developing dramatically fast and the competition within it is increasing, the values could become a source of competitive advantage for Russian travel companies. This article presents the results of a study which examined the interrelations of organizational and personal values, using the case of the Russian tour operator.
Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization.
This chapter attempts to demonstrate that altruistic social identities contribute to the development of an altruistic personal identity that results in relieving others’ suffering. Previous research has primarily focused on self-values or personal identities in predicting altruistic orientations or behaviors; little empirical research has linked personal values to social identities, and almost no work expands this to explore the implications for altruistic obligations that potentially help alleviate the suffering of others. We address this issue using a new cross-national survey, the Moral Schemas, Cultural Conflict, and Socio-Political Action Survey (2015) that includes data from four countries: United States, France, Turkey and South Korea. We operationalize altruistic social identities as identifying with groups that prioritize benevolence and universalism and altruistic personal identities as emphasizing benevolence and universalism for self. Our results mostly support our argument that identifying with groups that value benevolence and caring for others (holding altruistic social identities) contributes to the development of an altruistic personal identity with some exceptions in Turkey and South Korea. These findings have significant implications for future research on the altruistic self and alleviating suffering in different cultural contexts.
In the United States and many Western democracies, the individual personalities of voters rather than their social locations in various interest groups are presumably becoming decisive for political choice. This shift may reflect declining distinctiveness and extremity of parties as they seek the political center, increased complexity of political issues, growing interdependence among political units, and greater concern in the electorate with social relations and intimacy.
Early research on personality in politics dealt mainly with the dispositions, attitudes, and motives of voters and leaders. A broad literature attests to the merits and limitations of these approaches. More recent studies show that basic personal values largely mediate the effects of individuals’backgrounds and personality traits on voting behavior and on their core political attitudes. The 2006 ANES Pilot Study provided the first assessment of the role of basic personal values in politics in a representative American sample.