The paper analyses the concepts of transparency and accountability, their correlation with other key concepts used in Russian social and economic discourses, and also the critique of the transparency and accountability practices. It is shown that the main effect of development of these technologies is the substitution of reality by the “picture” formed for external users, transformation of this “picture” into the self-purpose. The reason of this is the change of paradigms of trust. Society has passed from trust in authorities with their right to make decisions on the basis of professional judgment to trust in procedures and standards, trust in “picture”. We have changed trust in result to trust in processes of its receiving.
The purpose of the article is to analyze transparency and accountability concepts in various discourses and to interpret these terms in Russian. The Critical Discourse-Analysis is used as the main method of research. The methods of linguistic analysis are applied too when Russian and English concepts’ correspondence is discussed. It is shown how transparency appears in the discourses of power, financial management and organizational control in social and economic systems: through quantification, an objectification, standardization, control and audit procedures.
The main advantages of transparency are marked; they are the reduction of uncertainty in society and markets, risk of financial losses, corruption, pollution, etc., the ability to control at the distance, the objectivity of decision-making criteria. At the same time, some dysfunctions are revealed: transparency can lead to substitution of reality by the "picture" and an assessment of actors according to this "picture" instead of their real performance, to leveling of professional and ethical values, to loss a control in situations of instability.
The Semantic Evaluation (SemEval) series of workshops focuses on the evaluation and comparison of systems that can analyse diverse semantic phenomena in text with the aim of extending the current state of the art in semantic analysis and creating high quality annotated datasets in a range of increasingly challenging problems in natural language semantics. SemEval provides an exciting forum for researchers to propose challenging research problems in semantics and to build systems/techniques to address such research problems. SemEval-2016 is the tenth workshop in the series of International Workshops on Semantic Evaluation Exercises. The first three workshops, SensEval-1 (1998), SensEval-2 (2001), and SensEval-3 (2004), focused on word sense disambiguation, each time growing in the number of languages offered, in the number of tasks, and also in the number of participating teams. In 2007, the workshop was renamed to SemEval, and the subsequent SemEval workshops evolved to include semantic analysis tasks beyond word sense disambiguation. In 2012, SemEval turned into a yearly event. It currently runs every year, but on a two-year cycle, i.e., the tasks for SemEval-2016 were proposed in 2015. SemEval-2016 was co-located with the 2016 Conference of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies (NAACL-HLT’2016) in San Diego, California. It included the following 14 shared tasks organized in five tracks: • Text Similarity and Question Answering Track – Task 1: Semantic Textual Similarity: A Unified Framework for Semantic Processing and Evaluation – Task 2: Interpretable Semantic Textual Similarity – Task 3: Community Question Answering • Sentiment Analysis Track – Task 4: Sentiment Analysis in Twitter – Task 5: Aspect-Based Sentiment Analysis – Task 6: Detecting Stance in Tweets – Task 7: Determining Sentiment Intensity of English and Arabic Phrases • Semantic Parsing Track – Task 8: Meaning Representation Parsing – Task 9: Chinese Semantic Dependency Parsing • Semantic Analysis Track – Task 10: Detecting Minimal Semantic Units and their Meanings – Task 11: Complex Word Identification – Task 12: Clinical TempEval iii • Semantic Taxonomy Track – Task 13: TExEval-2 – Taxonomy Extraction – Task 14: Semantic Taxonomy Enrichment This volume contains both Task Description papers that describe each of the above tasks and System Description papers that describe the systems that participated in the above tasks. A total of 14 task description papers and 198 system description papers are included in this volume. We are grateful to all task organisers as well as the large number of participants whose enthusiastic participation has made SemEval once again a successful event. We are thankful to the task organisers who also served as area chairs, and to task organisers and participants who reviewed paper submissions. These proceedings have greatly benefited from their detailed and thoughtful feedback. We also thank the NAACL 2016 conference organizers for their support. Finally, we most gratefully acknowledge the support of our sponsor, the ACL Special Interest Group on the Lexicon (SIGLEX). The SemEval-2016 organizers, Steven Bethard, Daniel Cer, Marine Carpuat, David Jurgens, Preslav Nakov and Torsten Zesch
The purpose of this paper was to find out how the ideas of transparency and accountability were mirrored in Russian universities’ practices within last decade. Quantification and Scientometrics are shown as the main instruments of these ideas' implementation. The case-study was designed to show the dynamics of Russian scientists’ interest to the universities activity metrics, by the means of National electronic library (e-library.ru). Two main trends for the transparency technologies in Russian education were revealed: “how much to pay” and “for what to pay”. We discussed the purposes' understanding insufficiency and imitation nature of some reforms.
JEL Codes A12, A13, I21, I23, M4, Z13
"Sinn und Bedeutung" is a leading European conference on formal semantics and formal pragmatics, held annually at different universities across Europe. The present volume contains a collection of papers presented at the 21st “Sinn und Bedeutung” at the University of Edinburgh on September 4th–6th, 2016.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.