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## Rational curves and special metrics on twistor spaces

A Hermitian metric ω on a complex manifold is called SKT or pluriclosed if ddcω=0. Let M be a twistor space of a compact, anti-selfdual Riemannian manifold, admitting a pluriclosed Hermitian metric. We prove that in this case M is Kähler, hence isomorphic to CP3 or a flag space. This result is obtained from rational connectedness of the twistor space, due to F Campana. As an aside, we prove that the moduli space of rational curves on the twistor space of a K3 surface is Stein.

A hypercomplex manifold M is a manifold with a triple I,J,K of complex structure operators satisfying quaternionic relations. For each quaternion L=aI +bJ+cK, L^2=-1, L is also a complex structure operator on M, called an induced complex structure. We are studying compact complex subvarieties of (M,L), when L is a generic induced complex structure. Under additional assumptions (Obata holonomy contained in SL(n,H), existence of an HKT metric), we prove that (M,L) contains no divisors, and all complex subvarieties of codimension 2 are trianalytic (that is, also hypercomplex).

For any smooth quartic threefold in *P*4 we classify pencils on it whose general element is an irreducible surface birational to a surface of Kodaira dimension zero.

A trisymplectic structure on a complex 2n-manifold is a three-dimensional space ${\rm\Omega}$ of closed holomorphic forms such that any element of \Omega has constant rank 2n, n or zero, and degenerate forms in \Omega belong to a non-degenerate quadric hypersurface. We show that a trisymplectic manifold is equipped with a holomorphic 3-web and the Chern connection of this 3-web is holomorphic, torsion-free, and preserves the three symplectic forms. We construct a trisymplectic structure on the moduli of regular rational curves in the twistor space of a hyperkhler reduction. We prove that the trisymplectic reduction in the space of regular rational curves on the twistor space of a hyperkhler reduction on M. As an application of these geometric ideas, we consider the ADHM construction of instantons and show that the moduli space of rank r, charge c framed instanton bundles on \mathbb{C}\mathbb{P}^{3} is a smooth trisymplectic manifold of complex dimension 4rc. In particular, it follows that the moduli space of rank two, charge c instanton bundles on \mathbb{C}\mathbb{P}^{3} is a smooth complex manifold dimension 8c-3, thus settling part of a 30-year-old conjecture.

This book provides an overview of the latest developments concerning the moduli of K3 surfaces. It is aimed at algebraic geometers, but is also of interest to number theorists and theoretical physicists, and continues the tradition of related volumes like “The Moduli Space of Curves” and “Moduli of Abelian Varieties,” which originated from conferences on the islands Texel and Schiermonnikoog and which have become classics.

K3 surfaces and their moduli form a central topic in algebraic geometry and arithmetic geometry, and have recently attracted a lot of attention from both mathematicians and theoretical physicists. Advances in this field often result from mixing sophisticated techniques from algebraic geometry, lattice theory, number theory, and dynamical systems. The topic has received significant impetus due to recent breakthroughs on the Tate conjecture, the study of stability conditions and derived categories, and links with mirror symmetry and string theory. At the same time, the theory of irreducible holomorphic symplectic varieties, the higher dimensional analogues of K3 surfaces, has become a mainstream topic in algebraic geometry.

Let S be a smooth rational curve on a complex manifold M. It is called ample if its normal bundle is positive: NS=⨁O(i_k),i_k<0. We assume that M is covered by smooth holomorphic deformations of S. The basic example of such a manifold is a twistor space of a hyperkähler or a 4–dimensional anti-selfdual Riemannian manifold X (not necessarily compact). We prove “a holography principle” for such a manifold: any meromorphic function defined in a neighbourhood U of S can be extended to M, and any section of a holomorphic line bundle can be extended from U to M. This is used to define the notion of a Moishezon twistor space: this is a twistor space admitting a holomorphic embedding to a Moishezon variety M′. We show that this property is local on X, and the variety M′ is unique up to birational transform. We prove that the twistor spaces of hyperkähler manifolds obtained by hyperkähler reduction of flat quaternionic-Hermitian spaces by the action of reductive Lie groups (such as Nakajima’s quiver varieties) are always Moishezon.

The name "K3 surfaces" was coined by A. Weil in 1957 when he formulated a research programme for these surfaces and theirmoduli. Since then, irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds have been introduced as a higher dimensional analogue of K3 surfaces. In this paper we present a review of this theory starting from the definition of K3 surfaces and going as far as the global Torelli theorem for irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds as recently proved by M. Verbitsky. For many years the last open question of Weil's programme was that of the geometric type of the moduli spaces of polarised K3 surfaces. We explain how this problem has been solved. Our method uses algebraic geometry, modular forms and Borcherds automorphic products. We collect and discuss the relevant facts from the theory of modular forms with respect to the orthogonal group O(2,n). We also give a detailed description of quasi pull-back of automorphic Borcherds products. This part contains previously unpublished results. We apply our geometric-automorphic method to study moduli spaces of both polarised K3 surfaces and irreducible symplectic varieties.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.