Институциональная ловушка. Неформальные практики хозяйствоания и управления советским предприятием в послевоенные годы
Article is made on the basis of a series of inquiries , complaints and memos stored in Perm State Archive of Contemporary History . Soviet economic system operates in a very peculiar way . She was full of postscripts in the official reports , the results of the plans overstatement , propaganda and reality is very different from each other . Act only through formal procedures was impossible. More or less , this system functioned effectively only if the informal practices of doing business . In the late Stalin era documents preserved description of how to buy a locomotive boiler, without having the financial capacity to carry 500 cubic meters as forests, without paying a penny , what and how best to pay with a team of builders , for which premium pay unrecorded , who take a job , but someone fired, how to create an informal social network in the upper echelons . All these and other practices allowed to perform work in an environment where the work was impossible.
The author offers an analysis of the Russian market theses services.
The objective of this book is to develop the sustainable and lasting skills of translator's competence and to build up translation categorial strategy.
The efficiency of social reforms in different countries mostly depends on the extent to which they can be accepted by people. Moreover, even if the problems are similar, the reasons may differ, which can lead to fail in applying existing laws of one state to another one. Bribery, as shows the Corruption Perception Index, calculated by Transparency International, is a typical problem for developing countries – that also matches research (Levin & Satarov, 2000; Ilzetzki, 2010) concluding that corruption has roots in socialist regimes and that in recently established political stability instable economic situation leads to growth in crime. The main problem within the scope of this project is to identify the relation between corruption perception and level of trust in the society and to distinguish the differences in factors affecting these characteristics in post-soviet countries. The research discoveres that distrust matters a lot for the problem in Russia and suggests further examining European countries in order to explain the difference in trust.