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## Atomistic simulation of laser ablation of gold: effect of pressure relaxation

The process of ablation of a gold target by femto- and picosecond laser radiation pulses has been studied by numerical simulations using an atomistic model with allowance for the electron subsystem and the dependence of the ion–ion interaction potential on the electron temperature. Using this potential, it is possible to take into account the change in the physical properties of the ion subsystem as a result of heating of the electron subsystem. The results of simulations reveal a significant difference between the characteristics of metal ablation by laser pulses of various durations. For ablation with subpicosecond pulses, two mechanisms of metal fracture related to the evolution of electronic pressure in the system are established.

The solution energy of H and He in various interstitial and substitution positions in the hcp lattice of α-Ti has been calculated based on the method of electron density functional. The lowest solution energy of He corresponds to the basal octahedral position and that of H corresponds to the octahedral position (next in energy is the tetrahedral position). The calculated vibration frequencies of H in various positions are used for identification of lines in the vibration spectrum obtained by the method of neutron inelastic scattering. Taking into account these spectra, it can be concluded that hydrogen atoms occupy in the hcp lattice of Ti both the octahedral and tetrahedral positions even at 600 K. The available experimental data do not contradict the conclusion that the octahedral position is more preferable in α-Ti. The energy barriers are estimated for various diffusion paths of H and He.

Investigation is made into the influence of preliminary treatment of aluminium alloys surface for diffusion welding with the aid of laser impulses. It is proved that preliminary laser treatment of the aluminium alloys surface of 1201 and 1151 types for diffusion welding increases welds strength by 30% as compared to the widely used treatment inflow discharge plasma. Besides, laser treatment substantially reduces working hours of the process. Metallographic analysis of the structure of specimens treated in the regime of ″ laser irradiation with subsequent diffusion welding ″ has proved that the weld lacks the narrow sharp boundary zone which is a usual place of initiation and propagation of cracks.

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A multiscale concept for irradiated materials simulation is formulated based on coupling molecular dynamics simulations (MD) where the potential was obtained from ab initio data of energies of the basic defect structures, with kinetic mesoscale models. The evolution of a system containing self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancies in crystalline molybdenum is investigated by means of MD. The kinetics of formation of di-SIA clusters and SIA–vacancy recombination is analyzed via approaches used in the kinetic theory of radiation ageing. The effects of 1D diffusion of SIAs, temperature, and defect concentrations on the reaction rates are also studied. This approach can validate both the kinetic mechanisms and the appropriate kinetic coefficients, offering the potential to significantly reduce the uncertainty of the kinetic methodology and providing a powerful predictive tool for simulating irradiation behavior of nuclear materials.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.

Let G be a semisimple algebraic group whose decomposition into the product of simple components does not contain simple groups of type A, and P⊆G be a parabolic subgroup. Extending the results of Popov [7], we enumerate all triples (G, P, n) such that (a) there exists an open G-orbit on the multiple flag variety G/P × G/P × . . . × G/P (n factors), (b) the number of G-orbits on the multiple flag variety is finite.

I give the explicit formula for the (set-theoretical) system of Resultants of m+1 homogeneous polynomials in n+1 variables