The process of ablation of a gold target by femto- and picosecond laser radiation pulses has been studied by numerical simulations using an atomistic model with allowance for the electron subsystem and the dependence of the ion–ion interaction potential on the electron temperature. Using this potential, it is possible to take into account the change in the physical properties of the ion subsystem as a result of heating of the electron subsystem. The results of simulations reveal a significant difference between the characteristics of metal ablation by laser pulses of various durations. For ablation with subpicosecond pulses, two mechanisms of metal fracture related to the evolution of electronic pressure in the system are established.

An overview is presented of experiments on ballistic electrical transport in inhomogeneous super conducting systems which are controlled by the process of Andreev reflection. The initial experiments based on the coexistence of a normal phase and a superconducting phase in the intermediate state led to the concept itself. It was followed by a focus on geometrically inhomogeneous systems like point contacts, which provided a very clear manifestation of the energy and direction dependence of the Andreev reflection process. The point contacts have recently evolved towards the atomic scale due to the use of mechanical breakjunctions, revealing a very detailed dependence of Andreev reflection on the macroscopic phase of the superconducting state. In presentday research, the superconducting in homogeneity is constructed by clean room technology and combines superconducting materials, for example, with lowdimensional materials and topological insu lators. Alternatively, the superconductor is combined with nanoobjects, such as graphene, carbon nano tubes, or semiconducting nanowires. Each of these “inhomogeneous systems” provides a very interesting range of properties, all rooted in some manifestation of Andreev reflection.

We consider quantum logical gates on Majorana qubits implemented in chain structures of ordinary qubits, spins, or pseudospins. We demonstrate that one can implement a two-qubit operation via local manipulations, using an extra coupler spin in a *T*-junction geometry, so that this coupler spin remains disentangled from the qubit. Furthermore, we identify a set of symmetry operations, which not only allow us to determine the resulting two-qubit gate, but also to demonstrate robustness of the resulting gate to inaccuracies in the manipulations, known for topological quantum computation.

Dusty plasma structures in glow discharge in helium in the temperature range of 5–300 K are investigated experimentally. We have described the experimental setup that makes it possible to continuously vary the temperature regime. The method for experimental data processing has been described. We have measured interparticle distances in the temperature range of 9–295 K and compared them with the Debye radius. We indicate the ranges of variations in experimental parameters in which plasma–dust structures are formed and various types of their behavior are manifested (rotation, vibrations of structures, formation of vertical linear chains, etc.). The applicability of the Yukawa potential to the description of the structural properties of a dusty plasma in the experimental conditions is discussed.

Abstract—In this work, we analyze the role of a thin Cr spacer between Fe and Gd layers on the structure and magnetic properties of a [Fe(35 Å)/Cr(tCr)/Gd(50 Å)/Cr(tCr)]12 superlattice. Samples without the Cr spacer (tCr = 0) and with a thin spacer (tCr = 4 Å) are investigated using X-ray diffraction, polarized neutron and res- onance X-ray magnetic reflectometry, static magnetometry, magneto-optical Kerr effect, and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. Magnetic properties are studied experimentally in a wide temperature range 4–300 K and analyzed theoretically using numerical simulation on the basis of the mean-field model. We show that a reasonable agreement with the experimental data can be obtained considering temperature dependence of the effective field parameter in gadolinium layers. The analysis of the experimental data shows that besides a strong reduction of the antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd, the introduction of Cr spacers into Fe/Gd superlattice leads to modification of both structural and magnetic characteristics of the ferromagnetic layers.

We have measured antiferromagnetic resonance (AFMR) frequency-field dependences for aluminum–manganese garnet Mn3Al2Ge3O12 at frequencies from 1 to 125 GHz and fields up to 6 T. There are three AFMR modes for all orientations, their zero field gaps are about 40 and 70 GHz. Andreev–Marchenko hydrodynamic theory [7] well describes experimental frequency–field dependences. We have observed hysteresis of resonance absorption as well as history dependence of resonance absorption near gap frequencies below 10 kOe in all three measured field orientations, which are supposedly due to the sample domain structure. Observation of the AFMR signal at the frequencies from 1 to 5 GHz allows to estimate repulsion of nuclear and electron modes of spin precession in the vicinity of spin-reorientation transition at H || [100].

Within electron density functional theory (DFT), the reflectance of radiation from shock-compressed xenon plasma is calculated. The dependence of the reflectance on the frequency of the incident radiation and on the plasma density is considered. The Fresnel formula is used. The expression for the longitudinal dielectric tensor in the long-wavelength limit is used to calculate the imaginary part of the dielectric function (DF). The real part of the DF is determined by the Kramers-Kronig transformation. The results are compared with experimental data. An approach is proposed to estimate the plasma frequency in shock-compressed xenon. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

The dynamics of high-frequency field solitons is considered using the extended nonhomogeneous nonlinear Schrodinger equation with induced scattering from damped low-frequency waves (pseudoinduced scattering). This scattering is a 3D analog of the stimulated Raman scattering from temporal spatially homogeneous damped low-frequency modes, which is well known in optics. Spatial inhomogeneities of second-order linear dispersion and cubic nonlinearity are also taken into account. It is shown that the shift in the 3D spectrum of soliton wavenumbers toward the short-wavelength region is due to nonlinearity increasing in coordinate and to decreasing dispersion. Analytic results are confirmed by numerical calculations.

We analyze magnetic kinematic dynamo in a conducting fluid where the stationary shear flow is accompanied by relatively weak random velocity fluctuations. The diffusionless and diffusion regimes are described. The growth rates of the magnetic field moments are related to the statistical characteristics of the flow describing divergence of the Lagrangian trajectories. The magnetic field correlation functions are examined, we establish their growth rates and scaling behavior. General assertions are illustrated by explicit solution of the model where the velocity field is short-correlated in time.

It is shown how the general formulas of the nonequilibrium diagram technique can be used in problems of tunnel planar structures described in the effective mass approach. The relation between such a “continual” approach and the tunneling Hamiltonian method is established, and the applicability conditions for this method are determined. The effects beyond the applicability limits of the tunneling Hamiltonian method, which can be described by the continual approach, are considered.

We found analytical solution for the time evolution of localized electron density in a system of two coupled single-level quantum dots (QDs) connected with continuous spectrum states in the presence of Coulomb interaction. This solution takes into account QD electrons correlation functions of all orders neglecting any correlations between localized and conduction electron filling numbers. We demonstrated that several time scales with the strongly different relaxation rates appear in the system for a wide range of the Coulomb interaction value. We revealed that specific non monotonic behavior of charge relaxation in QD takes place due to Coulomb correlations. We also found out that besides the usual charge oscillations with the period determined by the detuning between the energy levels of the QDs a new effect of period doubling appears in the presence of Coulomb interaction at particular range of the system parameters.

In magnetic compounds with Jahn–Teller (JT) ions (such as Mn3+ or Cu2+), the ordering of the electron or hole orbitals is associated with cooperative lattice distortions. There the role of JT effect, although widely recognized, is still elusive in the ground state properties. Here we discovered that, in these materials, there exist excitations whose energy spectrum is described in terms of the total angular momentum eigenstates and is quantized as in quantum rotors found in JT centers. We observed features originating from these excitations in the optical spectra of a model compound LaMnO3 using ellipsometry technique. They appear clearly as narrow sidebands accompanying the electron transition between the JT split orbitals on neighboring Mn3+ ions, displaying anomalous temperature behavior around the Néel temperature TN ≈ 140 K. We present these results together with new experimental data on photoluminescence found in LaMnO3, which lend additional support to the ellipsometry implying the electronic-vibrational origin of the quantum rotor orbital excitations. We note that the discovered orbital excitations of quantum rotors may play an important role in many unusual properties observed in these materials upon doping, such as high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance.

We discuss magnetization curves of a toy-model trigonal and tetrahedral clusters. Nonlinearity of magnetization with local minimum of differential susceptibility resembling known magnetization plateaus of triangular-lattice and pyrochlore lattice antiferromagnets is observed at intermediate temperature range *J* ≲ *T* ≲ Θ (here, *J* is the exchange coupling constant and Θ is a Curie–Weiss temperature). This behavior is due to increased statistical weight of the states with intermediate total spin of the cluster, which is related to the “order-by-disorder” mechanism of plateau stabilization of a macroscopic frustrated magnet.