Дворец как часть советского/постсоветского городского ландшафта (на примере дворца Екатерины II в Твери)
The article discusses one of the 1720s Russian educational projects that was presumably written by Andrey Osterman who was an appointed governor to the young emperor Peter II. The proposal that had been approved by The Supreme Privy Council delivered a full value program of Peter II’s study. Though the issue whether the plan was realized or not remains unclear the text itself presents the ground to consider the education principles that were employed to meet the need of power discourse. The author argues that unlike educational priorities accepted under the first Russian emperor Peter I who promoted mathematics and technical subjects his grandson Peter II was to be brought up according to the program based on learning dominantly history and geography. The article’s second part communicates ideas of the ground of such attitude change that happened within a very limited period of time and evaluates the interest the Russian Royal Court demonstrated to Osterman’s project in the early 1760s. The original text of the manuscript currently kept at the Russian State Archives of Ancient Documents (RGADA) is presented as a supplement to the article.
The article by Ekaterina Boltunova discusses a situation that is rarely addressed in studies of the politics of historical memory. Rather than focusing on the process of the “invention of tradition” (Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger) and the designation of “sites of memory” (Pierre Nora) in post-Soviet Russia, Boltunova shows what happens afterward, when politicians and the general public begin inhabiting the newly created spaces of important historical symbolism and fall under the influence of their recently created narratives. More specifically, the article focuses on ceremonial spaces related to tsars and emperors in Moscow and St. Petersburg: the Faceted Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin, St. Andrew Hall in the Grand Kremlin Palace (Moscow), St. Peter and St. George Halls in the Winter Palace (the Hermitage in St. Petersburg). Russian presidents Boris Yeltsin, Vladimir Putin, and Dmitry Medvedev felt it necessary to fashion their own ceremonial quarters in former imperial palaces by using and adapting the symbolism of spatial representation of past authority – even though those historical precedents themselves were the products of very recent architectural restorations. Once reconstructed, Russia’s historical memory of political grandeur has appealed in different ways to the main centers of power. While the government (president) feels more comfortable with symbolism of the imperial period, the Russian Orthodox Church (the Moscow Patriarchate) has claimed representations of the pre-Petrine Moscow tsardom. Thus, the “invented traditions” acquire agency of their own.