Державность по-советски: Имперское пространство советских 1970-х гг.
The research targets the issue of Russian imperial representative space of the Moscow Kremlin (Grand Kremlin Palace, Faceted Chamber, Armory, etc.) functionality during Brezhnev’s period. The primary sources are archival documentary films depicting diplomats and various and foreign representatives’ visits to the Moscow Kremlin in 1950s – 1970s. The author makes a comparative evaluation of the data and demonstrates how throughout the second part of the 20th century there occurred a shift from practical usage of the palace halls towards the restoration of their original function — symbolic representation of supreme power.
The author seeks the origins of a specific political ceremony that was quite common not only in medieval but also in early modern Germanic Länder. When solemnly entering a city, the riding prince used to be surrounded by criminals, previously convicted by local courts and sentenced to exile. He brought these convicts with him back into the city from which they had been expelled. This form of amnesty used to be explained by many German scholars mostly in terms of the ‘sacred kingship’ (Sakralkönigtum) as deriving from the charisma of ancient Germanic chieftains or late Roman emperors. They appealed also to the Sachsenspiegel and Schwabespiegel, as if these law books could reveal the basic juridical norms that made it possible for the princes to grant their pardon to exiled criminals. The article argues that the custom had nothing in common either with Roman emperors, ancient chieftains and ‘sacred kingship’, or with the ‘Mirrors’—both these habitual explanations are in fact nothing more than historiographical myths. The author claims that this highly impressive element of royal and princely representation did not even emerge in Germany but was borrowed there only in the late middle ages from an alien royal tradition, and for its roots one should in fact look not to kings but rather to bishops.
The article deals with some specific technical forms of representation of royal and princely power in medieval Europe.
The article by Ekaterina Boltunova discusses a situation that is rarely addressed in studies of the politics of historical memory. Rather than focusing on the process of the “invention of tradition” (Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger) and the designation of “sites of memory” (Pierre Nora) in post-Soviet Russia, Boltunova shows what happens afterward, when politicians and the general public begin inhabiting the newly created spaces of important historical symbolism and fall under the influence of their recently created narratives. More specifically, the article focuses on ceremonial spaces related to tsars and emperors in Moscow and St. Petersburg: the Faceted Chamber of the Moscow Kremlin, St. Andrew Hall in the Grand Kremlin Palace (Moscow), St. Peter and St. George Halls in the Winter Palace (the Hermitage in St. Petersburg). Russian presidents Boris Yeltsin, Vladimir Putin, and Dmitry Medvedev felt it necessary to fashion their own ceremonial quarters in former imperial palaces by using and adapting the symbolism of spatial representation of past authority – even though those historical precedents themselves were the products of very recent architectural restorations. Once reconstructed, Russia’s historical memory of political grandeur has appealed in different ways to the main centers of power. While the government (president) feels more comfortable with symbolism of the imperial period, the Russian Orthodox Church (the Moscow Patriarchate) has claimed representations of the pre-Petrine Moscow tsardom. Thus, the “invented traditions” acquire agency of their own.
This book brings together a group of leading experts on the political history of Germany and the medieval Empire from the Carolingian period to the end of the Middle Ages. Its purpose is to introduce and analyze key concepts in the study of medieval political culture. The representation of power by means of texts, buildings and images is a theme which has long interested historians. However, recent debates and methodological insights have fundamentally altered the way this subject is perceived, opening it up to perspectives unnoticed by its pioneers in the middle of the twentieth century. By taking account of these debates and insights, this volume explores a series of fundamental questions. How was power defined in a medieval context? How was it claimed, legitimized and disputed? What were the moral parameters against which its exercise was judged? How did different spheres of political power interact? What roles were played by texts, images and rituals in the maintenance of, and challenges to, the political order? The contributors bring varied and original approaches to these and other questions, illuminating the complex power relationships which determined the changing political history of medieval Germany.
This study describes different forrms of adventus ceremonies practicised around 1500 in local towns of the principality of Trier.