КЛАССИФИКАЦИЯ ИСТОРИЗМОВ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА С ЦЕЛЬЮ ИНТЕНСИФИКАЦИИ ЧТЕНИЯ АУТЕНТИЧНЫХ ТЕКСТОВ ИСТОРИЧЕСКОЙ ТЕМАТИКИ
One of the most important methodological problems in historiography of science is the problem of presentism, the alleged distortions induced when studying the past fromthe point of view of the present. During the discussion of this problem, the researchers identified a variety of types of presentism and anti-presentism, thus complicating the discussion. This report examines the classification of types of presentism proposed by Laurent Loison: empirical, descriptive, causal-narrative, normative, and critical presentisms. It is shown that some earlier and more particular classifications of historiographic positions in the presentism dispute (by Mikhail Rozov or by William Clark, for example), not being taken into account by Loison himself, fit into his general classification. Loison‘s classification is considered as a necessary preliminary step for rehabilitation of "benign" forms of presentism, actualizing historical and scientific research from scientific and philosophical points of view.
Two fundamental problems of the methodology of M. Scheler and K. Mannheim are in focus of this comparative analysis: the one of the rationals of a new sociocentric thinking which is represented in the sociology of knowledge, the another of the objectivity of cognition which is connected with the fending off the threat of the relativism. Under the differences in the base presuppositions and the means of solving of these problems, nonpresumable significant similarities emerge in the outlooks of two thinkers. They give reasons to change the prevalent approach to the qualification theirs views based on the opposition.
This article analyzes the works of the E.A. Yevtushenko "Utrennie liudi"(Morning people) collection, "Zavtrashniy Veter" (Tomorrow Wind) and the poem "Stanzia Zima"(Zima Station). These poems are devoted to the most acute social issues that were relevant in the seventies. The words with national-cultural component are playing an important text-forming part in the works of Yevtushenko. Sovietisms, vernacular elements, dialects and the words of a new life style are the constituent components of Yevtushenko's language. The usage of those components contributes to the diversity and renewal of the artistic world of his creativity, it conveys information about the way of life of the Soviet people.
The O.A. Zhukova's article presents the idea that Vyazemsky creates aesthetic canon of Russian classics, showing the process of universalization of aesthetic values in Russian culture. He consistently defended the thesis of the necessary of national literature in relationship with spiritual traditions and civil institutions of the people. The author reveals the aesthetic sense of the Vyzemsky's program, wich structural elements are the language as a form of expression of thought, historism in the formation of national literature and the ideas of the Enlightenment.
Culture-specific vocabulary carries additional contextual meanings and thus enriches the knowledge of the target language not only vocabulary-wise but also in terms of a more profound understanding of the culture of the target language speakers, enabling to do a more accurate translation into the native language of the learner. This chapter analyzes the peculiarities of reading of the texts abandoning in historisms, in order to identify the most efficient forms of working with the texts for students to accumulate active and passive vocabulary of historisms. The conducted study has elicited the need for a careful selection of authentic texts according to the criteria presented in the chapter. The skills of classifying culture-specific vocabulary and determining epoch of its existence and the historical environment in which it was in active vocabulary as well as the skill of providing a comprehensive definition for historisms facilitate a more in-depth understanding of the culture-specific texts abandoning in culture-specific vocabulary.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.