Геоинформационное моделирование обеспеченности населения Москвы объектами социальной инфраструктуры
Possibilities of application of geoinformation technologies for the optimal location of new maternity hospitals in Moscow are considered in the article. Among the main factors that are taken into account are the following: demographic features of the population in Moscow, an existing structure of maternity hospitals and a road-street network of the city.
The article presents the author’s approach to the design and implementation of the geodemographic information system of Russia (GDIS of Russia) developing at the Institute of Demography, Higher School of Economics. Advantages and disadvantages of the implemented architectures of the geographic information systems of social and demographic contents are revealed on the basis of comparative analysis of Russian and foreign systems. Thus we justified the choice of technical solutions, based on own resources without a dedicated GIS server with own mechanism for working with spatial data based on extended relational database management system data. We defined the system functionality (a set of tools for downloading, storing, displaying and analyzing of geodemographic data) in a form of services. The system of primary and derivative geodemographic indicators for GDIS of Russia is discussed. The logical and physical database models are developed.
This article provides an overview of international experience of the implementation of GIS in the census in the logic of its main stages, as well as recommendations for the gradual implementation of GIS in the next censuses in Russia. Approaches towards creation of spatial address databases in the preparatory phase, the use of tablet computers and positioning systems during the census and cartographic visualization of results of the census at the stage of distribution are presented. The questions of confidentiality of census date are discussed.
The article is devoted to the study of ethnic structure of the population in Russia and former USSR as well as the dynamics of ethnic processes by the means of mathematical and cartographical modeling. Integrated indicators are developed to estimate ethnic diversity in Russia and former USSR (ethnic diversity index and its modification - ethnic diversity index adjusted for the ability to speak Russian), maps are created on the basis of the derived indicators, claster analysis is produced to develop a topological classification of regions on their ethnic composition. Finally the forecast of ethnic structure of the population up to 2030 is given.
The main instrument of planning and formation of ecological network in the Moscow region should be geo-information system (GIS) allowing us to receive, organize, update, and process huge volumes of information at effective real-time. GIS systems together with the database will enable to track the most valuable natural territories and keep track of their biodiversity and analyze real-time processes that take place in these areas. The results of these studies should identify the main elements of ecological network - the "core area", "transit territory", "buffer zones", as well as serve as a basis to establish the legal status of the above-mentioned territories.
Obtained results will be used in updating the Master Plan of Moscow in its new borders and need to ensure rational development of the annexed territories.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.