Health and health systems in the Commonwealth of Independent States
The countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States diff er substantially in their post-Soviet economic development but face many of the same challenges to health and health systems. Life expectancies dropped steeply in the 1990s, and several countries have yet to recover the levels noted before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Cardiovascular disease is a much bigger killer in the Commonwealth of Independent States than in western Europe because of hazardous alcohol consumption and high smoking rates in men, the breakdown of social safety nets, rising social inequality, and inadequate health services. These former Soviet countries have embarked on reforms to their health systems, often aiming to strengthen primary care, scale back hospital capacities, reform mechanisms for paying providers and pooling funds, and address the overall shortage of public funding for health. However, major challenges remain, such as frequent private out-of-pocket payments for health care and underdeveloped systems for improvement of quality of care.
In article the market of medical insurance is analysed, specifics of the market in St. Petersburg are studied, the problems disturbing to development of medical insurance are formulated and ways of their decision are presented, and also some forecasts concerning growth and development of this type of service in St. Petersburg are submitted.
This paper presents a rich collection of data used to construct an energy security performance index of the eight countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Namely, the index covers Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. The data include results of Z-score normalization of 12 distinct indicators, constituting a total of 4 dimensions of energy security performance. These dimensions are the following: energy availability (oil import dependence, coal import dependence, natural gas import dependence), energy affordability (access to electricity, pump price for gasoline, pump price for diesel fuel), energy and economic efficiency (renewable energy consumption, GDP per unit of energy use, electric power consumption), and environmental stewardship (CO2, N2O, and SO2 emissions). Z-scores are calculated for 2000 and 2014, which allows to evaluate energy security performance of the CIS countries in each dimension and in total over the period of 14 years.
Th e last two decades have seen a rapid expansion of Regional trade agreements (RTA) including republics of the Community of Independent States (CIS). Th e reason for this phenomenon is that the RTAs have certain advantages. At the same time the RTAs can greatly complicate the trading environment, creating a web of incoherent rules. In order to avoid a further growing tension between RTAs and Multilateral Trading System there is only one way: harmonizing both.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
The Working Paper examines the peculiarities of the Russian model of corporate governance and control in the banking sector. The study relies upon theoretical as well as applied research of corporate governance in Russian commercial banks featuring different forms of ownership. We focus on real interests of all stakeholders, namely bank and stock market regulators, bank owners, investors, top managers and other insiders. The Anglo-American concept of corporate governance, based on agency theory and implying outside investors’ control over banks through stock market, is found to bear limited relevance. We suggest some ways of overcoming the gap between formal institutions of governance and the real life.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.