Музеефикация советского: между барахолкой и винтажным салоном
The article analyzes the phenomenon of folk museification recent Soviet past - the emergence of proactive thematic Internet resources and the "folk museum" dedicated to the nostalgic representation of Soviet everyday life of the late thaw and stagnation.
This article analyzes the theoretical approaches to the investigation of nostalgia in the social sciences. Nostalgia has become an important element of interaction of individual and social consciousness of the past. The concept of nostalgia needs theoretical conceptualization. Now it is used as a convenient metaphor that describes a complex range of emotional experiences associated with the past. This article provides an overview of current concepts of nostalgia and to comment on the further theoretical development of the concept.
Jeffrey Olick is one of the most prominent researchers in the field of memory studies nowadays. Yet, none of his works have been translated into Russian. “Figurations of memory” as the author himself states is one of his most important texts. It is dedicated to the process-relational methodology. J. Olick criticizes traditional approaches as they see collective memory as a static thing, whereas it should be studied as a process. On the other hand author criticizes a mainstream understanding of memory as a unified object. Instead he suggests that there are multiple mnemonic forms and practices that should be investigated. As a result he presents a new methodology that is based on analysis of the four essential aspects of memory work: field (mostly in a sense in which Bourdieu used it), medium, genre and profile. This method of analysis leads to emergence of additional empirical categories, such as official, vernacular, public, and private memory; affective, aesthetic-expressive, instrumental-cognitive, and political-moral media; the normal legitimation, German traditions, German victimhood, and German guilt genres; and the reliable, moral, and normal profiles. Though in the end the model may seem rather complex, author claims that it is by far more clear and precise that other models of research of collective memory. More than that, he claims that this methodology can be universal for studying a large number of sociological topics.
This paper addresses the issue of public cultural services management by the example of event organization in cultural institutions. The Night of Museums event has been held annually in St. Petersburg and attracted more than 100 000 visitors for its fifth edition in 2012. A multistage study on this event has been organized aiming at exploring the potential of the large-scale event in development of public cultural services management both from the side of audience and cultural entities. The findings of the study indicate audience development within the event, implementation of innovative solutions through application of creative methods by cultural institutions and develop recommendations for effective provision of public cultural services.
In post-Soviet Russia, as the society underwent rapid and crucial social changes, secular political elites and the broader public paid exceptional attention to the Orthodox elders as part of the process of looking for the “usable past”. This past would become the foundation of a new national myth, which was greatly needed at that time. Not surprisingly, the most comforting variant of the national past for most peoplewas its “cultural” variant as presented by the Orthodox religion, which started to be represented as the Russian national culture. In their search for the comfortingshared past different Russian elites,including bohemian circles, the so-called intelligentsiya, and new business and political elites, turned their attention to the old, modest religious men and women whom they combined in the category of startsy created at that particular time. These people were believed to live ascetic religious lives that were separate from all of the political intrigues of the Church, which was blamed by many for its collaboration with the Soviet (and later post-Soviet) state. In their remote parishes and monasteries, they represented, in the eyes of believers and sympathizers, a sort of ahistorical past, a national heritage, equal in its authenticity to the Russian song, fairy tale, or landscape.
Saint veneration is probably the most important and characteristic part of the Eastern Orthodox Christian tradition as a lived religion. To become a “lived religion” again, post-Soviet Orthodox Christianity needed new, up-to-date saints who would attract the attention of the community. The canonization of a saint is always a political act. Every canonization is a political statement, whether openly articulated or not. In the post-Soviet period the recent history of relations between the state and church has been at the center of several levels of public debate. As a consequence, the official Church elaborated a number of projects in which its attitude toward the Soviet past was reformulated. On the one side, the New Martyrs project was promoted by the liberal Church establishment and inspired and initiated by the Russian Orthodox Church Abroad. The canonization of New Martyrs asserts that during the period of religious persecution, the Orthodox tradition in the USSR was interrupted and almost disappeared. The canonization of Saint Matrona, on the contrary, states that religious life continued under the Soviet regime, embodied in people such as this blind and paralyzed village woman.
The book is written by a group of researchers and students of the Higher School of Economics on the results of a three-year research project. It is dedicated to State Museum-reserve Tsaritsyno: a vibrant cultural space, in which different ideas and different concepts collide; that of history, culture, public space and its functions, norm, etc. Different logics of production of the atmosphere of the contemporary (post-Soviet , capital ) city intertwine there as well. The visitor of Tsaritsyno is the main protagonist of the book. This historic attraction works for him, and he himself defines and changes its content and the conditions for its development. The researchers addressed this contemporary visitor of Tsaritsyno more general theoretical and specific ethnographic questions. The book is illustrated by many photographs made by the participants of the project.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.