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Тут, здесь и сейчас. О временных значениях пространственных дейктических слов.

While space-time metaphor is a source of regular prepositional and adverbial polysemy in many languages, spatial deictic words develop temporal meanings much more rarely. However, space-time metaphor in deixis is not as exotic as it might seem, as demonstrated by the Russian spatial proximity marker tut ‘here,’ which develops a meaning of temporal proximity. Its meaning, though, is different from the meanings of classical deictic markers of temporal proximity, such as sejchas ‘now.’ Tut develops a synthetic meaning of actuality, which comprises the following semantic elements: (a) time period which includes the moment of speech, and such moments preceding and following it that are sufficiently close to the moment of speech to retain connection with it; (b) physical or mental space that includes the speaker; (c) a situation where the speaker is either a participant or an observer; (d) a resulting situation. Besides semantic differences, tut has a special semi-grammaticalized status (it is not a full-fledged adverb, but rather a semi-formed grammatical marker); communicative peculiarities (it cannot be part of rheme or contrastive theme); prosodic properties (it is a clitic).

Ключевые слова: пространственный и временной дейксис, момент речи, семантика, просодия, ситуация, коммуникативная функция, грамматикализацияWhile space-time metaphor is a source of regular prepositional and adverbial polysemy in many languages, spatial deictic words develop temporal meanings much more rarely. However, space-time metaphor in deixis is not as exotic as it might seem, as demonstrated by the Russian spatial proximity marker tut ‘here,’ which develops a meaning of temporal proximity. Its meaning, though, is different from the meanings of classical deictic markers of temporal proximity, such as sejchas ‘now.’ Tut develops a synthetic meaning of actuality, which comprises the following semantic elements: (a) time period which includes the moment of speech, and such moments preceding and following it that are sufficiently close to the moment of speech to retain connection with it; (b) physical or mental space that includes the speaker; (c) a situation where the speaker is either a participant or an observer; (d) a resulting situation. Besides semantic differences, tut has a special semi-grammaticalized status (it is not a full-fledged adverb, but rather a semi-formed grammatical marker); communicative peculiarities (it cannot be part of rheme or contrastive theme); prosodic properties (it is a clitic).