Трансформация брачно-партнерских отношений в развитых странах
The second half of 20-th century gave us the Second Demographic Transition. This phenomenon was marked with great personal emancipation in the area of sexual, matrimonial and reproguctive behaviour. The traditional social standards have lost their enormous impact on human life. In this article we consider the trends in marriage and partnership as a logical consequence of demographic modernization of society.
Declining marriage rates and increasing cohabitation rates in modern Russia have become a trend that many scholars have observed and tried to explain through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition. The current study is another attempt to understand these changes. The aim was to reveal the difference between some patterns of matrimonial events, define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, and find out the factors of entrance to non-marital unions. For these purposes, Event History Analysis method was applied. We also suggested a logical scheme of the ways of development of the first cohabitations. The opposite trends of matrimonial behavior were observed: the younger Russian people are, the higher their probability of starting the first cohabitation and the lower their risk to have the first marriage. The analysis showed that a cohabitation is not yet a complete alternative to marriage but it has possibility of becoming it for younger generations.
The chapter discusses long-term and short-term changes in the formation of the marrital structure of Russia's population, taking into account the results of the 2015 Microcensus and in comparison with the results of previous population censuses and microcensuses, as well as taking into account estimates of parameters characterizing the intensity of marriage and divorce made by the author on the basis of data of official registration of these events. Combining the data of censuses / microcensuses on the number of people who have never been married, with the data of the current statistics of marriage registration allowed the author to build a historical series of the first marriage tables (life-table or survival analysis approach), indicating the fundamental changes in the marriage model of Russians that have taken place over the past two to three decades.
This article analyses the transformation in the mode of partnership formation in seven countries of Eastern Europe. The aim of the study is to provide an up-to-date account of the switch from direct marriage to non-marital cohabitation as it has progressed from the 1960s to the mid-2000s, using data from the Generations and Gender Surveys. Unlike previous studies, we examined the extent to which cross-national variations in the onset and scale of transformation characteristic of the Second Demographic Transition, could be linked to nuptiality regimes that existed in the region in the 19th and early 20th centuries. With few exceptions, the results support the notion of correspondence between historical and contemporary patterns. Forerunners in the transition to partnership formation outside marriage tend to come from areas which exhibited a late/low prevalence of marriage; the latecomers are typically situated east of the Hajnal line. The article discusses plausible mechanisms underpinning the observed continuity.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.