Внешние причины и травматизм: источники информации, методы и показатели оценки потерь
In this paper we propose a method of mathematical modeling of the epidemiological situation, taking into account external factors. An algorithm for finding the parameters of the model based on the results of observations, based on the method of least squares. Investigated the dependence of the epidemiological situation of the various parameters and external factors, as well as the ability to manage the development of epidemics by influencing these factors. Proposed the concept of the system of monitoring the epidemic situation, taking into account the external risks.
A calculation method and a variation method of parameters of the epidemic situation model taking into account external risks is proposed. The detailed step-by-step algorithm available in the application EXCEL for the calculation and analysis of the model parameters based on the results of observations is given. The prognosis of the epidemic situation with the estimation of the disease outbreak duration and the total number of population members involved in the outbreak is constructed. We investigated the epidemic situation by an example of reports of a diseases group acute viral respiratory infections-flu in one of the districts of the Moscow region.
Retirement age reform in the Russian Federation is widely discussed in recent Russian economic literature. This literature mainly focuses on economic justification of increasing retirement age, less often considers demographic issues. The latter that according to economists point of view provide additional arguments for this reform are critically considered in the article. As indicated in it, none of these issues (population ageing, life expectancy growth, health of the elderly) nowadays provide empirical grounds for making decisions on changes in retirement age. On the contrary, modern demographic processes in Russia give arguments against this reform.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.