Перспективы гуманизации обучения (рец. на книгу: Rogers С. Freedom to learn for the 80's. Columbus — Toronto — London — Sydney: Ch. E. Merrill Publ. Company, A Bell & Howell Company, 1983. 312 p.)
Formation of Person-centered approach (PCA ), built on client-centered psychotherapy is a history of expansion of psychotherapy in different spheres of human activity - education, business, medicine, politics. All this history proves that psychotherapeutic work, full of humanity and managed on person-to-person relations, has huge transformation potential of any human relations(educational, business, medical, and political). Within the expansion PCA no education, no business, no medicine, no politics, there is only the relations between people. Alternative perspective of PCA development (Schmid, 2012) suggests its inclusion in these spheres of social life. This perspective, the expected adoption of the "game rules" that exists in these social spheres means the inevitable dissolution in them PCA.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.