The book offers history of dramatic writing of the Spanish Republican exile of 1939 in Europe. This data is completed by information on its staging permormed in European theaters, Russian theaters among them.
About what do Chekhovian «heroes» grieve? About a life which value-horizons are principles and ideals of culture. But culture falls, its ideals and principles are discredited. A person whose life is interconnected with life of culture falls as well. Chekhovian characters grieve from comprehension of «escaping being», everyone in their own way. They live in a vague presentiment of cultural catastrofe.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.