Каким московские послы увидели двор Максимилиана I в 1517 г., да и увидели ли они его?
One of the first more or less extensive Russian official accounts, describing Muscovite embassies to European courts, depicts the mission of Vladimir Plemiannikov and Istoma Maloy to Emperor Maximilian I in 1517. Its reliability can now be examined anew due to several documents recently found (or reassessed) in state archives in Moscow and Innsbruck. This documentary evidence reveals the official report of the ambassadors to be not ingenuous and complete description of all relevant events (as it presents itself on the first glance) but rather a sophisticated construct. The authors' specific narrative strategy was based on selectivity of their account (where dubious episodes were omitted) and accentuation of those sides of their activity, that could show them in the most favourable light (as most devoted and skilful servants) in the eyes of the Grand Duke and his counsellors.
The author compares the final report of ambassodors of the Grand Duke of Moscow after their mission in Innsbrick in 1518 with contemporary accounts concerning the same embassy survived in Austrian archives.
En este artículo presentamos los resultados de nuestra investigación sobre la doctrina del precio justo del franciscano portugués Fr. Rodrigo do Porto, autor de la primera edición del Manual de Confessores e Penitentes (1549). Hemos escrito este artículo por varios motivos. El primero, porque esta obra es la primera suma portuguesa de teología y economía moral. El segundo, porque el pensamiento económico del autor del Manual es poco conocido. El tercero, porque este pequeño Manual (1549) de Fr. Rodrigo sirvió de base para el posterior Manual o Enchiridion (1556, 1573) del famoso y ilustre doctor español Martín de Azpilcueta, denominado el Doctor Navarro, a quien se atribuyó el descubrimiento de la Teoría cuantitativa del dinero, en la obra publicada en 1556. El cuarto, por cuanto en anteriores trabajos nuestros hemos encontrado en esta obra de Fr. Rodrigo do Porto las fuentes de dicha teoría. Por último, porque es injusto que no conozcamos bien al primer autor portugués de este Manual (que en su gran humildad humana y cristiana no quiso que apareciera su nombre), ni su aportación a la ciencia económica, ni su posible influencia en la formación del pensamiento económico de sus contemporáneos y discípulos y, en particular, de su recensor y posteriormente coautor Martín de Azpilcueta.
The series of studies collected in theis book represent different approaches of their authors to the problem of privat life in the past.
The paper examines different attempts to define philosophy as a discipline in Spain between 1557 and 1627 and thus fills a gap in scholarship on early modern philosophy, in which an analysis of how the early moderns defined philosophy as a discipline is by and large lacking. In the sources under examination, three main strategies for defining philosophy can be distinguished: an analysis of the meaning of ’philosophy’, leading to reflections on the complicated relation between philosophy and wisdom, or an analysis of the end of philosophy, evoking debates on the relevance of practical philosophy and the good life, or an analysis of ’philosophical objects’, discussing the question whether philosophy is a ’science of everything’ and whether it can be scientific at all.
The paper demonstrates that early modern Spanish Aristotelians were united by a common methodology and shared questions rather than by a unified body of doctrine. And it shows that attempts to define philosophy had largely didactic relevance and should not be misunderstood as ’metaphilosophical’ in the contemporary sense of the word.
The anthology provides a very first overview of the history of the Innsbruck Court from the 15th century to the end of the Ancien Régime, thus meeting a substantial research desideratum. It is the result of a colloquium that took place on 6 and 7 June 2002 in Innsbruck, organised by the Historic Commission of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Institute for History at Innsbruck University. No fewer than 13 authors from England, the Czech Republic, Russia, Italy, Germany and Austria analysed the functions, change and appearance of what was largely a residential court that has also had a lasting influence on the visual appearance of the city.
The first section analyses standards and representation, the second deals with the festivities at court and forms of symbioses of court and city, a third section examines the role and cultural transfer functions of women at court and a final chapter gives thought to questions of regional integration. The contributions give, for the first time, a greater preciseness to what was known of the Innsbruck court. In particular, it has made it possible to better determine the position of Tyrolean court society as a mediator and, the old topic of the city of Innsbruck as a conveyer of culture and as a transit station on the way to Italy, particularly during the Renaissance, was able to be identified more precisely. The Innsbruck court acted as a significant link in the intra- and inter-dynastic exchange of pre-modern Europe.
The article is devoted formation of the German doctrine of Private International Law. First papers in the conflict of different national laws appeared in Germany in the 16th century which was due to the political and legal disunity of the country. There were more than 200 territorial units with state and legal independence in Germany. «Usus pandectum moderatum» acted as a common, along with their own laws and customs were taken within each territory. The diversity of local laws entailed the emergence of serious interlokal conflicts. A whole galaxy of scholars was in the 16th century in Germany who had studied the question of conflict law. However, the German theory of statutes has not been studied in the literature as an independent doctrine it did not stand out in a separate conflict of law school. Moreover, the most studies mention only the names of two German scholars 16th century – Joachim Mynsinger and Andreas Gaill, although many German lawyers deal with issues of conflict laws – in particular, Johann Sichard, Hieronymus Schurffius, Matthias Colerus and Ernst Cothmann. These scholars only are mentioned in the modern German doctrine, they are not known in the Russian literature on PIL. The article analyzes the views of these six lawyers on conflict law. The names of these scholars marked the beginning of the doctrine of Private International Law in Germany and the blossoming of the German theory of statutes. German authors have apprehended this theory of the works of Italian and French writers 14–15th centuries, which bowed before the Roman law, and approved its universal character. German lawyers argued in the mainstream the general methodology of Italian bartolists conducting the division of statutes on personal and real (they adopted partially the division of statutes on prohibitive and favourable). However, the universal effect of Roman law was contrary to the requirements of practical life, which prescribed the priority of local laws. In this regard, the German lawyers were under the direct influence of the French school of conflict of law 15–16th centuries with its approach of the principal territoriality of all statutes. In fact, in the 16th century, the German theory of statutes was an Italian doctrine has been subjected to the strong influence of the feudal sovereignty of statutes. "The Statute does not protrude outside of its territory but in the territory it obliges everyone – citizens and aliens", – that is the basic postulate of the German theory of statutes 16th century.