Православная церковь в системе взаимоотношений Руси и Золотой орды
The article discusses the details of the foreword to the yarlyk of Uzbek Khan located in the Expanded collection of labels issued by the Russian metropolitans about the trip to the Horde of Metropolitan Peter together with the Grand Duke Mikhail of Tver. The article contains review and assessment of their validity. The author is inclined to recognize the analyzed information as both generally reliable and well consistent with other information and historic confirmation. The details of the Foreword reflected the change in protectionist policies of the Horde Khans towards Russian Church in the first half of the 14th century.
This monograph presents research into the history of the Golden Horde that represents its role in world history, and contains key contemporary studies by leading scholars from the Russian and foreign academic centres. The cover design features the image of ‘Mounted Batyr’, which belongs to the brand ‘Cultural and historical heritage of Tatarstan’.
Article devoted to analysis of political activity of Uzbek khan Muhammad Sheybany and Crimean khan Muhammad Girey I at the beginning of the 16th c. Author examines politics of two khans using historical-legal approach and concentrated on analysis of administrative system established by both monarchs, their relations with other rulers of former Golden Horde territories. As a result, he concludes that both khans positioned themselves as legitimate heirs and successors of the disintegrated Golden Horde and attempted to restore this state as they were not satisfied by control of certain regions of the former empire. Despite the fact that Muhammad Sheybany acted from the east of the Juchid Empire and Muhammad Girey from the West, both used the same political and legal methods to take under own control former possessions of Juchids including central regions of the Golden Horde – Volga and Ural ones. Although they declared restoration of the former empire, we shouldn’t consider their activity as attempts to “throwback”: both leaders understood clearly that political situation and legal system were changed and tried to construct their power in accordance with new realities. It was reflected, in particular, in forming the system of vassalage instead centralized imperial state, co-rule (elder and younger khans), appealing to Mohammedan political and legal principles to legitimate khan’s power, etc. But it seems that finally just effective activity of Muhammad Sheybany and Muhammad Girey I caused the opposition of powerful political forces against them – interior as well as foreign ones. As a result, both khans were killed while were at the peak of their power, and since that tiem Juchids had to give up the dream of restoration of the Golden Horde.