Психологические и поведенческие факторы ипохондрических расстройств
Existence is holistic being, i.e. embodied being in the world. Existence in EA is described by the existential fundamental motivations. They contain the psychodynamic basis which may provoke psychic disorders in the body. Drawing on clinical experience and derived from numerous theories of psychosomatics and theories of resource enhancement, an anthropological picture and an etiological understanding of psychosomatic diseases is developed, which also offers a subjectively felt link between the body and psyche. Hence a psychosomatic disorder is characterized mainly by a blockage of the 2nd and 3rd fundamental motivations combined with an exaggerated reaction of the 1st and 4th FMs, thus resulting in the typical functional activism. Psychopathologically, one may start out with a simultaneous concurrent disorder, mutually inhibiting and therefore "masked" depression and hysteria. The personal spiritual process of the appropriation of information is characterized by reduced reception of "impression" and development of "position taking". — A case study exemplifies the description of this existential analytical approach to psychosomatics.
Illness and treatment representation in the broad sense is considered as one of the key factors of self-regulation in the situation of the illness in psychosomatics and health psychology. This work is devoted to the application of locus of control constructs (internality / externality of attribution of events) and self-efficacy (confidence of the person in her ability to realize her plans) to health and illness. According to the results of the theoretical review, it is important to assess the locus of control and self-efficacy in the specific situation – like situation of illness and treatment. We assume that the structure of the locus of control can be distinguished to not only internal, external and impersonal locus of control – but also that the locus of control of illness reasons and of treatment have different functions. On the basis of these assumptions we developed illness- and treatment-related locus of control scale and treatment-related selfefficacy scale and validated them on a sample of 517 respondents. Consistency of scales in different samples was 0,63-0,82 (with the exception of external locus of control subscale for illness reasons, 0,53-0,58), test-retest reliability - 0,58-0,81. Factor analysis confirms the 6-factor structure of the illness- and treatment-related locus of control scale, and single-factor of treatment- related self-efficacy scale. Correlation with general locus of control questionnaire and general self-efficacy scale is in favor of their convergent validity. Typical profile of internal, external and impersonal locus of control regarding the illness reasons and treatment was revealed. Treatment self-efficacy is related to the majority of indicators of both physical and psychological subjective well-being, while external and impersonal LC regarding illness reasons and impersonal LC of treatment are associated with worse quality of life (in domains of health, emotions), and in some cases - with symptoms of anxiety and depression. The role of internal LC and external LC of treatment is less clear. The scales could be used in studies of the attribution of illness and treatment and confidence in the treatment.
Subjective representations of illness and treatment in chronic somatic illnesses are key factors in patients’ compliance and quality of life. The paper describes the structure and diagnostics of illness and treatment representations in accordance with the models of health and illness self-regulation (Leventhal et al, 2003) and perception of treatment (Horne, 2003). The study of relationship between treatment representation and illness representation and quality of life was based on the data of 98 patients of therapeutic and neurological departments. The subjective necessity and subjective concerns about the treatment correlated with patients’ beliefs about illness duration, controllability and its negative effects. Beliefs about necessity of the medications, but not concerns about medication were associated with reduced quality of life, that was explained by the fact that the patient is taking the role of the "patient" and is negatively thinking about his condition and capabilities. The results suggest that the diagnosis and modification of treatment representation may contribute to compliance and quality of life in patients with chronic somatic illnesses.
The general aim of this thesis is to explore the gendered and classed nature of social work and social welfare in Russia to show how social policy can be a part of and reinforce marginalisation. The overall research question is in what ways class and gender are constructed in Russian social work practice and welfare rhetoric through Soviet legacies and contemporary challenges? In addition, which actors contribute to the constitution of social work values and how this value system affects the agency of the clients? This study focuses on contradictory ideologies that are shaped in discursive formations of social policy, social work training and practice. It is a qualitative study, containing fi ve papers looking at this issue from three different perspectives: policy and institutions, culture and discourse, actors and identity. The data collection was arranged as a purposive–iterative process. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with social work practitioners, administrators and clients, participant observations in social services and analysis of documents of various kinds.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
In the internal medicine wide spectrum the gastroenterology is one of the chapters, less enlightened by the scientific evidence. It does not mean that the practice of the grasntroenterology may ot be improved by the systematic use of the approaches of the evidence based medicine