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## Entropy Concept for Paramacrosystems with Complex States

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Humans can determine image quality instantly and intuitively, but the mechanism of human perception of image quality is unknown. The purpose of this work was to identify the most important quantitative metrics responsible for the human perception of digital image quality. Digital images from two different datasets—CT tomography (MedSet) and scenic photographs of trees (TreeSet)—were presented in random pairs to unbiased human viewers. The observers were then asked to select the best-quality image from each image pair. The resulting human-perceived image quality (HPIQ) ranks were obtained from these pairwise comparisons with two different ranking approaches. Using various digital image quality metrics reported in the literature, we built two models to predict the observed HPIQ rankings, and to identify the most important HPIQ predictors. Evaluating the quality of our HPIQ models as the fraction of falsely predicted pairwise comparisons (inverted image pairs), we obtained 70–71% of correct HPIQ predictions for the first, and 73–76%for the second approach. Taking into account that 10–14% of inverted pairs were already present in the original rankings, limitations of the models, and only a few principal HPIQ predictors used, we find this result very satisfactory. We obtained a small set of most significant quantitative image metrics associated with the human perception of image quality. This can be used for automatic image quality ranking, machine learning, and quality-improvement algorithms.

The direct relationship between thermodynamic entropy and economic scarcity is only valid for a thermodynamically isolated economy. References to the second law of thermodynamics in economics within the context of scarcity ignore the fact that the earth is not an isolated system. The earth interacts with external sources and sinks of entropy and the resulting total entropy fluctuates around a constant. Even if the mankind finally proves unable to recycle industrial waste and close the technological cycle, the economic disruption caused by the depletion of natural resources may happen while the total thermodynamic entropy of the ecosystem remains essentially at the present level, because the transfer of chemically refined products may not increase significantly the total entropy, but it may decrease their recyclability.

The inutility of industrial waste is not connected with its entropy, which may be exemplified with the case of alumina production. The case also demonstrates that industrially generated entropy is discharged into surroundings without being accumulated in ‘thermodynamically unavailable matter’.

Material entropy, as a measure of complexity and economic dispersal of resources, can be a recyclability metric, but it is not a thermodynamic parameter, and its growth is not equivalent to the growth of thermodynamic entropy.

We discuss a possibility of deriving an H-theorem for nonlinear discrete time evolution equation that describes random wealth exchanges. In such kinetic models economical agents exchange wealth in pairwise collisions just as particles in a gas exchange their energy. It appears useful to reformulate the problem and represent the dynamics as a combination of two processes. The first is a linear transformation of a two-particle distribution function during the act of exchange while the second one corresponds to new random pairing of agents and plays a role of some kind of feedback control. This representation leads to a Clausius-type inequality which suggests a new interpretation of the exchange process as an irreversible relaxation due to a contact with a reservoir of a special type. Only in some special cases when equilibrium distribution is exactly a gamma distribution, this inequality results in the H-theorem with monotonically growing ‘entropy’ functional which differs from the Boltzmann entropy by an additional term. But for arbitrary exchange rule the evolution has some features of relaxation to a non-equilibrium steady state and it is still unclear if any general H-theorem could exist.

Conformance checking is a subarea of process mining that studies relations between designed processes, also called process models, and records of observed processes, also called event logs. In the last decade, research in conformance checking has proposed a plethora of techniques for characterizing the discrepancies between process models and event logs. Often, these techniques are also applied to measure the quality of process models automatically discovered from event logs. Recently, the process mining community has initiated a discussion on the desired properties of such measures. This discussion witnesses the lack of measures with the desired properties and the lack of properties intended for measures that support partially matching processes, i.e., processes that are not identical but differ in some steps. The paper at hand addresses these limitations. Firstly, it extends the recently introduced precision and recall conformance measures between process models and event logs that possess the desired property of monotonicity with the support of partially matching processes. Secondly, it introduces new intuitively desired properties of conformance measures that support partially matching processes and shows that our measures indeed possess them. The new measures have been implemented in a publicly available tool. The reported qualitative and quantitative evaluations based on our implementation demonstrate the feasibility of using the proposed measures in industrial settings.

The concept of weighted entropy takes into account values of different outcomes, i.e., makes entropy context-dependent, through the weight function. We analyse analogs of the Fisher information inequality and entropy-power inequality for the weighted entropy and discuss connections with weighted Lieb’s splitting inequality. The concepts of rates of the weighted entropy and information are also discussed.

Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.

One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.