Обоснование зон ограниченного доступа автомобилей низких экологических классов в крупном городе (на примере Москвы)
The main objective of the OECD project was to develop recommendations aimed at improving the use of economic and other instruments of management of water resources for attaining sustainable development of water sector, as well as socio-economic development of the Republic of Buryatia as a whole. The project consisted of three stages that resulted in the development of specific relevant reports included in the series of works performed on the commission of OECD.
Proposed recommendations relate to improvement of water policies while the main aim of the series of project was not the development of detailed methodologies and instructions but rather identification of a general way for policy reforms in the field of water resource management. Such methodological guidelines on introduction and improvement of administrative and economic instruments are propose to be developed at a later stage, after relevant political decuisions on the proposed measures are made.
According to current international climate change regime countries are responsible for greenhouse gas emissions, which result from economic activities within national borders, including emissions from producing goods for exports. At the same time imports of carbon intensive goods are not regulated by international agreements.
In this paper carbon emissions embodied in exports and imports of Russia were calculated with the use of inter-country input-output tables from WIOD database. It was revealed that Russia is the second largest exporter of emissions embodied in trade and the large portion of these emissions is directed to developed countries. The reasons for high carbon intensity of Russia’s exports are obsolete technologies (in comparison to developed economies) and the structure of commodity trade: Russian exports primarily fossil fuels and energy-intensive goods and imports products with relatively low energy intensity.
Because of large amount of net exports of carbon intensive goods the current approach to emissions accounting does not suit interests of Russia. On the one hand, Russia, as well as other large net emissions exporters, is interested in the revision of allocation of responsibility between producers and consumers of carbon intensive products. On the other hand, current technological backwardness makes Russia vulnerable to the policy of “carbon protectionism”, which can be implemented by its trade partners.
At the heart of the book all-round consideration of a problem EMC of vehicles lays. From system positions questions of a noise stability and noise emission are stated. The review of the basic test methods of motor transport is given. Parametres EMC an onboard electric equipment are resulted. Methods and means of multilevel maintenance EMC are in detail considered. The attention not only is paid to vehicles with hydrocarbonic engines, but also with alternative power units. In the book the big emphasis on problems of stability of an electric equipment to electromagnetic influences is placed. The material mentions questions EMC not only civil motor transport, but also a special purpose. Various variants of maintenance to parametres EMC of vehicles are resulted. The book will be useful to the technical experts, occupied in educational, research, industrial and other spheres of the automobile industry. It is possible to recommend the edition as the manual to bachelors, masters and post-graduate students of corresponding directions.
The main objective of OECD project was the development of recommendations aimed at improving the use of economic and other instruments for management of water resources for ensuring sustainable development of water sector, as well as socio-economic development of the Republic of Buryatia as the whole. The project consisted of three stages that resulted in the devуlopment of specific relevant reports, included in the given series of works implemented on the commission of OECD.
Proposed recommendations rather relate to improvement of water policies while the aim of the series of projects was not the development of detailed methodologies or instructions on application of specific instruments, but identification of a main direction of policy in the field of water resource management. Such methodological guidence on application and improvement of various administrative and economic instruments would be developed later, after principal political decisions on the proposed measures are made.
The problem of electromagnetic stability of technical systems is now key in scientific researches and leans against the reached successes in the field of basic researches of physics of interaction of electromagnetic fields with objects and on achievements in methods of reproduction of fields.
Modern scientific researches in this area are characterised by the decision of private theoretical problems of influence of electromagnetic fields on separate elements and technical systems in three-dimensional statement. The offered complex of researches, first of all, is directed on working out of practical methods of maintenance of electromagnetic safety of vehicles (automatic telephone exchange) and estimations of stability of automatic telephone exchange from electromagnetic influences at stages of conceptual designing.
This volume presents new results in the study and optimization of information transmission models in telecommunication networks using different approaches, mainly based on theiries of queueing systems and queueing networks .
The paper provides a number of proposed draft operational guidelines for technology measurement and includes a number of tentative technology definitions to be used for statistical purposes, principles for identification and classification of potentially growing technology areas, suggestions on the survey strategies and indicators. These are the key components of an internationally harmonized framework for collecting and interpreting technology data that would need to be further developed through a broader consultation process. A summary of definitions of technology already available in OECD manuals and the stocktaking results are provided in the Annex section.