We consider NP-hard scheduling problem on a single machine minimizing total tardiness on a single machine. We present a number of polynomial and pseudo-polynomial algorithms for special cases of the problem. Based on these algorithms, we give the algorithm that solves Event-Odd Partition problem in pseudo-polynomial time. This algorithm for Partition problem can handle instances with non-integer parameters.
В то время как число нетарифных барьеров (НТБ) в мире растет, Евразийский экономический союз старается сократаить НТБ - и занимается приближением своей системы технического регулирования к той, которая у Европейского союза. Однако, непосредственных выгод для европейских компаний пока не предвидятся.
One of the most popular statements in the systemic transition literature since the second half of the 1990th is that different experiences of the CEE and Baltic states, on the one hand, and the most of the CIS countries, on the other hand, are embedded in different social norms and values, encouraging efforts in the new EU member states and preventing it in some of CIS countries.
Как следует из самой идеи дискурса, он не принимается в рассмотрение без учета конкретного случая его создания и употребления, поскольку он отражает социальные, политические и культурные особенности своих участников. В то же время в дискурсе могут переплетаться «голоса» других дискурсов, что провоцирует возникновение новых оттенков смыслов. Особенности этого процесса – «интердискурсивность» - положены в основу данной статьи. Он проиллюстрирован примерами из победной речи Б.Обамы (2008), связанными с популярными в Америке песнями, что придает речи особую музыкальность.
This paper pertains mainly to art cognitonics, it is a significant branch of cognitonics, or the science about the human being in the digital world. The first aim of the paper is to consider a way of achieving cognitive engagement of the adolescents and university students at lectures on art cognitonics. The central idea is to expand the conceptual universe of the learners by means of messages conveyed by outstanding canvases and sculptures. Art cognitonics changes the perception of a work of art by the beholder in comparison with the traditional approach. The second aim is to state a new conception of a sci-fi museum (a science fiction museum), this conception is underpinned by cognitonics. The principal idea of the new conception is the creation of a thought-provoking space aiming at stimulating the process of perception of the power of thought, regarding thought as a value.
The Arctic region is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable to climate change. The dramatic melting of Arctic ice has several negative consequences for the whole ecosystem as well as for a way of life of native people but it also creates new opportunities for the region. First, it opens up potential for exploitation of large deposits of natural resources such oil and gas. Second, it shrinks Arctic shipping routes which offer significant economic savings for many countries. These benefits has already attracted many countries, both Arctic and non-Arctic, thus resulting in potential conflict of interests. In our paper we present a mathematical approach to the problem of conflict resolution in the Arctic. First, we propose an approach how the level of interest in each part of the region should be evaluated with respect to main resources - oil, gas, fish and maritime routes. Second, we present several models of areas allocation to resolve the problem of conflict resolution. As a result, we applied several scenarios of areas allocation, evaluated their efficiency based on the total satisfaction level and identified conflict zones in the Arctic.
Though the issue of economic cycles has been subject to numerous studies, this problem has retained its high importance. What is more, the current crisis has confirmed in an extremely convincing way the point that, notwithstanding all the successes achieved by many states in their countercyclical policies, no economy is guaranteed against uncontrollable upswings and unexpected crises and recessions that tend to follow such upswings. In addition to this, the financial globalization has increased substantially the risks of such cyclical fluctuations.
The notion of economic cycles is regarded ambiguously in economic science. In modern theories, business cycles are frequently defined as fluctuations of actual output around its potential value which is achieved in full employment conditions (see, e.g., Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee 1988). However, quite frequently economics does not achieve on the rise the potential GDP volume when a recession phase starts (such situations are described in more detail in Гринин, Коротаев 2009а: ch. 1). Thus, economic cycle, in our opinion, can be defined as periodical fluctuation around medium line of production volume, where repeating phases of rise and decrease can be specified.
In the model that we propose below we have tried to briefly describe the main features of medium-term cycles of business activity, or business cycles (7–11 years) that are also known as Juglar cycles after the prominent 19th-century French economist Clement Juglar (1819–1905), who investigated these cycles in detail (Juglar 1862, 1889).
 Many economists maintain that business cycles are quite regular with the characteristic period of 7–11 years. However, some suggest that economic cycles are irregular (see, for example, Fischer, Dornbusch, and Schmalensee 1988). As we suppose, comparative regularity of business cycles is observed rather at the World System scale than in every country taken separately. This corroborates the important role of exogenous factors for the rise and progress of business cycles (for more detail see below).
 Medium-term cycles (7–11 years) were first named after Juglar in works by Joseph Schumpeter, who developed the typology of different-length business-cycles (Schumpeter 1939, 1954; see also Kwasnisсki 2008).