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Chapter 6 - Recent trends and research strategies for treatment of water and wastewater in Russia

P. 119-138.

Ensuring access to clean drinking water and sanitation is a massive global challenge and a UN Sustainable Development Goal. Access varies among countries depending on their geographical location and their socioeconomic development level. However, what is common to all countries is the search for ways to improve the efficiency of water intake, use, and purification, as well as to mitigate the factors that have an adverse impact on water availability, including climate-related issues, natural disasters, demographic changes and urbanization, technological advancements, economic growth and prosperity, and social and cultural values. Research on future conditions indicates that the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector faces multiple uncertainties. Therefore, forward-looking policies need to be formulated in order to develop mechanisms for dealing with emerging developments, uncertainties, opportunities, and risks.