Scenarios for Regional Development in the Altai Krai and Long-Term Trends
The Government of Jamaica places agricultural development among its priorities and employs domestic policy measures and border protection to support agriculture. This report provides a qualitative analysis of the alignment of agricultural policy programs in Jamaica with the goals and existing challenges of the sector, supplementing it with a quantitative evaluation of agricultural support. The analysis finds that agricultural policy uses a limited number of instruments and concentrates on only a few sub-sectors. A comparison of the trends in agricultural support demonstrates that Jamaica’s share of gross farm receipts originating from agricultural policy (34.9% in 2012-14) was higher than in most LAC countries. The share of support to general services in total support was among the lowest regionally (8.2%).
This report serves as a guide to the agricultural policy shifts made by the Government of Jamaica that would be desirable in the context of the changing role of agriculture. It focuses on the central question of how to create within the context of fiscal austerity an enabling framework for agriculture that results in a more competitive sector, with prospects for growth and poverty alleviation in the future. The three major studies underpinning this report are an Agricultural Sector Support Analysis, a Climat Change Report and an Agricultural Taxation Report. This report synthesizes and expands on the elements in these studies that are most relevant to the policy choices facing the government in the context of its tax reform initiative.
The relative importance of agriculture in Suriname’s economy has declined over the last two decades. Meanwhile, as agricultural output fluctuated, the country’s economic growth was boosted by development in the mining and services sectors. However, agriculture is still socio-economically significant, as it is a major provider of employment in rural areas, accounts for 5% of the country’s foreign exchange earnings, and is a key contributor to food security through the production of rice, the population’s main staple food.
Handbook of International Food and Agricultural Policies is a three-volume set that aims to provide an accessible reference for those interested in the aims and implementation of food and farm policies throughout the world. The treatment is authoritative, comprehensive and forward looking. The three volumes combine scholarship and pragmatism, relating academic writing to real-world issues faced by policy-makers. A companion volume looking at the future resource and climate challenges for global agriculture will be published in the future.
Volume I covers Farm and Rural Development policies of developed and developing countries. The volume contains 20 country chapters together with a concluding comprehensive synthesis of lessons to be drawn from the experiences of the individual countries.
Volume II examines the experience of countries with food policies, including those dealing with food safety and quality and the responsibility for food security in developing countries. The chapters address issues such as obesity, nutritional supplements, organic foods, food assistance programs, biotech food acceptance, and the place of private standards.
Volume III describes and explains the international trade dimension of farm and food policies — both at the bilateral and regional level — and also the multilateral rules that influence and constrain individual governments. The volume also looks at the steps that countries are together taking to meet the needs of developing and low-income countries.
The volumes are of value to students and researchers interested in economic development, agricultural markets and food systems. Policy-makers and professionals involved in monitoring and regulating agricultural and food markets would also find the volumes useful in their practical work. This three-volume set is also a suitable source for the general public interested in how their food system is influenced by government policies.
В центре внимания статьи - аграрная политика России. Общая идея: политизация аграрной политика является причиной стагнации сельского хозяйства
Although the agricultural sector contributes only 0.5% to Trinidad and Tobago’s GDP, it accounts for over 4% of employment and is important for the diversification of the economy. The Government of Trinidad and Tobago supports agriculture through a combination of incentives to agricultural producers, support for research and infrastructure, and border protection measures. Support to producers averaged 22.4% of gross farm receipts in 2013-2015, and a significant share of that support (44%) was provided in the form of transfers to general services. At the same time, total transfers arising from agricultural policy amounted to only 0.34% of the national GDP. Reorienting agricultural policy towards goals and actions that are less production-distorting, and that address agricultural productivity and profitability, will help create a possibly small, but efficient agricultural sector, as well as exploit certain specific competitive advantages.
В главе дается обзор аграрной реформы, проводимой в России в 2000-е годы. В качестве ее этапов выделяются: приоритетный национальный проект "Развитие АПК", Доктрина продовольственной безопасности и присоединение России к ВТО. делается вывод о непоследовательности аграрной реформы.
В статье рассматривает эволюция государственной аграрной политики в контексте смены общего политического курса – от радикально-либерального проекта 1990-х годов до восстановления государственного патронажа и активной поддержки аграрной сферы в настоящее время. В качестве этапов такой политики рассмотрены приватизация земель и создание фермерства, приоритетный национальный проект «Развитие АПК», принятие Доктрины продовольственной безопасности, вступление РФ в ВТО, импортозамещение как ответ на санкции Запада. Делается вывод о непоследовательности аграрной политики ввиду резкой смены ее базовых принципов. Причина непоследовательности состоит в сильной привязке экономической политики к политическому контексту, который определяется как внешнеполитическими коллизиями, так и трансформацией внутренней модели развития.