Indexing Arctic Urban Sustainable Development Planning Strategies: the Case of Russia
Throughout the twentieth century, glaciologists and geophysicists from Denmark, Norway andSweden made important scientific contributions across the Arctic and Antarctic. This research was of acute security and policy interest during the Cold War, as knowledge of the polar regions assumed military importance. But scientists also helped make the polar regionsNordic spaces in a cultural and political sense, with scientists from Norden punching far above their weight in terms of population, geographical size or economic activity. This volume presents an image of Norden that stretches far beyond its conventional limits,covering a vast area in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Sea, as well as parts of Antarctica. Rich in resources, scarce in population, but critically important in global and regional geopolitics, these spaces were contested by major powers such as Russia, the United States, Canada and, in the Antarctic, Argentina, Australia, South Africa and others. The empirical focus on Danish, Norwegian and Swedish influence in the polar regions during the twentieth century embraces a diverse array of themes, from the role of science in policy and diplomacy to the tensions between nationalism and internationalism, with clear relevance to the important role science plays in contemporary discussions about Nordic engagement with the polar regions.
Изучается общее пространство ЕС-Россия в области международной безопасности.
Empirical testing of how different internal and external factors influence the stability of municipal strategic planning system (MSPS’s) is discussed. The methods of collection, analysis, and coding of data on the creation and further development of Russia’s first municipal and regional strategic plans worked out in 2000-2004 are considered. A preliminary study of 18 cases describing the long-term results of municipal strategic planning are analyzed. An analysis of formally described cases allowed for the singling out of five urban groups different from each other in the impact of the first strategic planning projects implemented about ten years ago on further MSPS development. The situations observed were either distinctly unsuccessful (when the initial strategic document was not used a year or two later and only remained formal) or distinctly successful (when the first strategic document was regularly renewed, extended, and became a basis for an operating MSPS). To a larger degree, the successful was determined by such factors as stability in local government, legal status of a strategic planning document, and organization level of strategy implementation. In addition, significant are such factors as publicity of formulation and implementation and activity of public participation.
в статье рассматриваются проекты советских архитекторов по созданию городов с искусственным микроклиматом в Арктике в 1950-1960-е годы. Этот сюжет вписан в контекст исоциальных трансформаций периода Оттепели, международного сотрудничества в Арктике и трансфера технологий
Тезисы выступления на Научно-практической конференции «Фундаментальная наука и образование в интересах устойчивого развития северных территорий России» (в рамках Конгресса "Северное измерение России: наука, инновации, международное сотрудничество» (Москва, 21-22 апреля 2009 г.).