This book introduces readers to essential technology assessment and forecasting tools, demonstrating their use on the basis of multiple cases. As organizations in the high-tech industry need to be able to assess emerging technologies, the book presents cases in which formal decision-making models are developed, providing a framework for decision-making in the context of technology acquisition and development. Applications of different technology forecasting tools are also discussed for a range of technologies and sectors, providing a guide to keep R&D organizations abreast of technological trends that affect their business. As such, the book offers a valuable the theoretical and practical reference guide for R&D managers responsible for emerging and future technologies.
Summarizes the latest applications of robust optimization in data mining.
An essential accompaniment for theoreticians and data miners Data uncertainty is a concept closely related with most real life applications that involve data collection and interpretation. Examples can be found in data acquired with biomedical instruments or other experimental techniques. Integration of robust optimization in the existing data mining techniques aims to create new algorithms resilient to error and noise.
This volume contains papers presented at the 13th International Conference on Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets and Granular Computing (RSFDGrC) held during June 25–27, 2011, at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) in Moscow, Russia. RSFDGrC is a series of scientific events spanning the last 15 years. It investigates the meeting points among the four major disciplines outlined in its title, with respect to both foundations and applications. In 2011, RSFDGrC was co-organized with the 4th International Conference on Pattern Recognition and Machine Intelligence (PReMI), providing a great opportunity for multi-faceted interaction between scientists and practitioners. There were 83 paper submissions from over 20 countries. Each submission was reviewed by at least three Chairs or PC members.We accepted 34 regular papers (41%). In order to stimulate the exchange of research ideas, we also accepted 15 short papers. All 49 papers are distributed among 10 thematic sections of this volume. The conference program featured five invited talks given by Jiawei Han, Vladik Kreinovich, Guoyin Wang, Radim Belohlavek, and C.A. Murthy, as well as two tutorials given by Marcin Szczuka and Richard Jensen. Their corresponding papers and abstracts are gathered in the first two sections of this volume.
На фоне весьма активного в последние десятилетия обсуждения темы развития науки, технологий и инноваций, до сих пор отсутствует согласованное понимание того, что представляют собой эти области политики, как они вписываются в повседневную практику принятия решений.
В книге “Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for the Future. Potentials and Limits of Foresight Studies” впервые представлен доказательный подход к формированию научно-технической и инновационной политики, в основе которого лежит методология Форсайта — признанная действенным инструментом разработки стратегических программ развития и уже повсеместно применяемая органами госуправления и крупными компаниями.
В издании обобщен опыт правительств, ведущих российских и международных научно-исследовательских и аналитических центров, в частности, Организации экономического сотрудничества и развития (ОЭСР), Организации Объединенных Наций по промышленному развитию (ЮНИДО), Объединенного исследовательского центра Еврокомиссии. Помимо теоретической части, книга содержит блоки практических рекомендаций по эффективному использованию потенциала Форсайта. Они сформулированы экспертами мирового уровня и адресованы лицам, принимающим решения в сфере государственного и корпоративного управления, аналитикам, исследователям.
Substantially formal treatment of issues for designers of natural language processing system. Presents an in-depth treatment of NL semantics and a mathematical model of a linguistics database. Extensive use of examples and illustrations to clarify complex material and demonstrate practical applications. End-of-chapter exercises, historical and bibliographical notes, and glossaries enrich the text This book examines key issues in designing semantics-oriented natural language (NL) processing systems. One of the key features is an original strategy for transforming the existing World Wide Web into a new generation Semantic Web (SW-2) and the basic formal tools for its realization, which are proposed. The principal distinguishing feature of the proposed SW-2 is the well-developed ability of NL processing. A broad conceptual framework for describing structured meanings of NL-texts (sentences and arbitrarily complex discourses) is obtained by introducing a mathematical model describing 10 interrelated partial operations on conceptual structures. A new class of formal languages called standard knowledge languages (SK-languages) is defined. Readers will gain knowledge of these languages and learn a way of building semantic representations using them. Additionally, a broadly applicable mathematical model of a linguistic database is constructed. A useful for practice and strongly structured multi-lingual algorithm of semantic-syntactic analysis of NL-texts is described by means of original formal concepts; the input texts can be sentences in English, Russian, and German.With extensive use of examples and illustrations to clarify complex material and demonstrate practical applications, many historical and bibliographical notes, end-of-chapter exercises, and glossaries, this book can serve as a graduate-level textbook, as well as a good reference for researchers and practitioners who deal with the various problems involving semantics of natural language texts, ontologies, Semantic Web, semantic data integration in e-science, and content languages in multi-agent systems, in particular, in e-commerce and e-health.Written for:Graduate students, researchers and practitioners.
This book, which is based on several courses of lectures given by the author at the Independent University of Moscow, is devoted to Sobolev-type spaces and boundary value problems for linear elliptic partial differential equations. Its main focus is on problems in non-smooth (Lipschitz) domains for strongly elliptic systems.
The author, who is a prominent expert in the theory of linear partial differential equations, spectral theory and pseudodifferential operators, has included his own very recent findings in the present book.
The book is well suited as a modern graduate textbook, utilizing a thorough and clear format that strikes a good balance between the choice of material and the style of exposition. It can be used both as an introduction to recent advances in elliptic equations and boundary value problems and as a valuable survey and reference work. It also includes a good deal of new and extremely useful material not available in standard textbooks to date.
Graduate and post-graduate students, as well as specialists working in the fields of partial differential equations, functional analysis, operator theory and mathematical physics will find this book particularly valuable.
This book presents recent research developments in social networks, economics, management, marketing and optimization applied to sports. The volume will be of interest to students, researchers, managers from sports, policy makers and as well athletes. In particular the book contains research papers and reviews addressing the following issues: social network tools for player selection, movement and pricing in team sports, methods for ranking teams and evaluating players' performance, economics and marketing issues related to sports clubs, techniques for predicting outcomes of sports competitions, optimal strategies in sports, scheduling and managing sports tournaments, optimal referee assignment techniques and the economics and marketing of sports entertainment.
Schubert varieties lie at the cross roads of algebraic geometry, combinatorics, commutative algebra, and representation theory. They are an important class of subvarieties of flag varieties, interesting in their own right, and providing an inductive tool for studying flag varieties. The literature on them is vast, for they are ubiquitous - they have been intensively studied over the last fifty years, from many different points of view. This book is mainly a detailed account of a particularly interesting instance of their occurrence: namely, in relation to classical invariant theory. More precisely, it is about the connection between the first and second fundamental theorems of classical invariant theory and standard monomial theory for Schubert varieties in certain special flag varieties. Historically, this connection was the prime motivation for the development of standard monomial theory. Determinantal varieties and basic concepts of geometric invariant theory arise naturally in establishing the connection.
"Экономика символического обмена" дважды издавалась в России. Впервые — в ноябре 2006 г., повторно — в апреле 2007 года. Становилась победителем конкурса "Лучшая книга года" за 2006 год в номинации "Лучшее издание деловой литературы". Одна из центральных проблем исследования — вопрос об ограниченной работоспособности денег в культуре. Александр Долгин развивает идеи нобелевского лауреата Дж. Акерлофа, изучая специфику действия тенденции ухудшающего отбора в поле культуры. Автор вводит в обращение новую категорию — качественное личностное время человека — понятие, позволяющее отстроить подсчет результата в культуре гораздо точнее и объемнее, чем кассовые сборы, которыми оперирует современная экономика. Цель издания — введение в оборот новой социальной практики и нового инструментария для преобразований в сфере культуры. Для чего в книге спроектирован социальный институт потребительской экспертизы культурных благ, основанный на коллаборативной фильтрации (иначе говоря, на коллективной потребительской сертификации качества). В настоящее время идея реализована на практике под именем рекомендательного сервиса Имхонет (www.imhonet.ru) — система активно развивается, уже сейчас ей пользуются 350 000 человек. Сервис дает ответ на ряд острейших вопросов: потребительская навигация в условиях постоянно возрастающего ассортиментного предложения, выстраивание обратной связи между производителем и потребителем и т.д. Поскольку в книге идет речь о культуре в цифровую эпоху, когда многие традиционные механизмы не работают или работают со сбоями, автор подробно анализирует систему авторского права. Неслучайно "Экономика символического обмена" стала первым изданием в России, вышедшим в свет под грифом "копилефт". Аналогично поступило и издательство Springer, впервые в своей практике опубликовав книгу под лицензией Creative Commons.
Bridging the gap between higher education research and policy making was always a challenge, but the recent calls for more evidence-based policies have opened a window of unprecedented opportunity for researchers to bring more contributions to shaping the future of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Encouraged by the success of the 2011 first edition, Romania and Armenia have organised a 2nd edition of the Future of Higher Education – Bologna Process Researchers’ Conference (FOHE-BPRC) in November 2014, with the support of the Italian Presidency of the European Union and as part of the official EHEA agenda. Reuniting over 170 researchers from more than 30 countries, the event was a forum to debate the trends and challenges faced by higher education today and look at the future of European cooperation in higher education. The research volumes offer unique insights regarding the state of affairs of European higher education and research, as well as forward-looking policy proposals. More than 50 articles focus on essential themes in higher education: Internationalization of higher education; Financing and governance; Excellence and the diversification of missions; Teaching, learning and student engagement; Equity and the social dimension of higher education; Education, research and innovation; Quality assurance, The impacts of the Bologna Process on the EHEA and beyond and Evidence-based policies in higher education.
The book is devoted to the analysis of attainability regions and partial equilibria in physicochemical and other systems. This analysis employs the extreme models of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. Consideration is given to the problem of choosing, from the set of equilibrium states belonging to the attainability regions, that equilibrium corresponding to the extreme values of a property of interest to a researcher. For example, one might desire to maximize the concentration of target products of a chemical reaction. The problem of coordinating thermodynamics and kinetics is very important in the analysis presented.
These proceedings have been written in an attempt to communicate the major purpose of the NATO Advanced ResearchWorkshop (ARW), 2013, that is, to bring to light the possibilities of performance, based on the actual level, of the everpromising THz (terahertz) technology, a kind of Araba Fenice, not yet known tomost technical operators, especially its appeal in security applications. To achieve this, the ARWhas invited highly experienced scientists with expertise in THz science and technology and its application areas. We begin with the consideration that the risk of mass murder due to terroristic attacks is on the rise, thus posing a threat for security in the civil and military world. To counter this problem, we look at one of the most appealing, newly emerging, technologies that is based on the THz detection of explosives and other forms of threats. However, operational difficulties (both for THz sensors and sources), especially regarding size, complexity of use, overall cost, and the need of very low temperatures for sensors, strongly limit the application of this technology. To find solutions to these and related issues, we invited expert scientists to present review papers on the most advanced sensors and sources based on THz technology, especially for security system applications. The ARW has been conferred the major task of describing the most advanced technologies, in terms of identifying their operational strengths and weaknesses, forecasting the best technological solutions to overcome the actual operational limits, and suggesting to the NATO SPS (Science for Peace and Security) Division the most reliable ways to proceed for future developments. To achieve a broad evaluation of the above aspects, a questionnaire on various key points with regard to the actual performance and possible future developments in the field of THz science, technology, and applications has been discussed.