We single out the main features of the mathematical theory of noble gases. It is proved that the points of degeneracy of the Bose gas fractal dimension in momentum space coincide with the critical points of noble gases, while the jumps of the critical indices and the Maxwell rule are related to tunnel quantization in thermodynamics. We consider semiclassical methods for tunnel quantization in thermodynamics as well as those for second and ultrasecond quantization (the creation and annihilation operators for pairs of particles). Each noble gas is associated with a new critical point of the limit negative pressure. The negative pressure is equivalent to covering the (P,Z) diagram by the second sheet.
Higher School of Economics (HSE) and supported by the Information Retrieval Specialist Group at the British Computer Society (BCS–IRSG). The conference was held during March 24–27, 2013, in Moscow, Russia – the easternmost location in the history of the ECIR series. ECIR 2013 received a total of 287 submissions in three categories: 191 full papers, 78 posters, and 18 demonstrations. The geographical distribution of the submissions is as follows: 70% were from Europe (including 9% from Russia), 17% from Asia, 12% from North and South America, and 3% from the rest of the world. All submissions were reviewed by at least three members of an international two-tier Program Committee. Of the papers submitted to the main research track, 30 were selected for oral presentation and 25 for poster/short presentation (16% and 13%, respectively, hence a 29% acceptance rate). In addition, 38 posters (49%) and 10 demonstrations (56%) were accepted. The accepted contributions represent the state of the art in information retrieval, cover a diverse range of topics, propose novel applications, and indicate promising directions for future research. Out of accepted contributions, 66% have a student as the primary author. We gratefully thank all Program Committee members for their time and efforts ensuring a high-quality level of the ECIR 2013 program. Additionally, ECIR 2013 hosted four tutorials and two workshops covering various IR-related topics. We express our gratitude to the Workshop Chair, Evgeniy Gabrilovich, and the Tutorial Chair, Djoerd Hiemstra, and the members of their committees.
– Searching the Web of Data
– Practical Online Retrieval Evaluation
– Cross-Lingual Probabilistic Topic Modeling and Its Applications in Information
– Distributed Information Retrieval and Applications
– From Republicans to Teenagers: Group Membership and Search (GRUMPS)
– Integrating IR Technologies for Professional Search
The conference included a Mentoring Program and Doctoral Consortium.
We thank Mikhail Ageev and Hideo Joho and Dmitriy Ignatov, respectively, for coordinating these activities.
We would like to thank our invited speakers – Mor Naaman (Rutgers University, Social Media Information Lab) and the winner of the Karen Sparck Jones award. The Industry Day took place on the final day of the conference and featured a bright assortment of talks given by prominent researchers and practitioners: Paul Ogilvie (LinkedIn), Hilary Mason (bitly), Antonio Gulli (Bing), Andrey Kalinin (Mail.Ru), Jimmy Lin (Twitter/University of Maryland), Marc Najork (Microsoft Research), and Andrey Styskin (Yandex), to whom we express our gratitude. We appreciate generous financial support from Yandex and HSE, as well as from our sponsorsMail.Ru and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (platinum level), Google and ABBYY
Logic deals with the fundamental notions of truth and falsity. Modal logic arose from the philosophical study of “modes of truth” with the two most common modes being “necessarily true” and “possibly true”. Research in modal logic now spans the spectrum from philosophy, computer science and mathematics using techniques from relational structures, universal algebra, topology, and proof theory. These proceedings record the papers presented at the 2016 conference on Advances in Modal Logic, a biennial conference series with an aim to report on important new developments in pure and applied modal logic. As indicated above, there are new developments in using modal logic to reason about obligations, about programs, about time, about combinations of modal logics and even about negation itself.
Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов университетов, изучающих английский язык. Пособие содержит дополнительные тексты для развития навыков чтения, навыков разговорной речи, а также задания для пополнения словарного запаса.
Задачей пособия является расширение и активизация словарного запаса студентов по предложенным темам и навыкам, повторение и систематизация тематического материала, приобретение и развитие речевых навыков.
Все тексты, вошедшие в пособие, являются аутентичными и подобраны из разнообразных источников, включая современные издания и Интернет-ресурсы, и содержат материал, позволяющий освоить лексику и грамматику необходимую для успешного выполнения коммуникативных заданий как при подготовке к экзаменационным вопросам из разделов Reading и Speaking в международном формате, так и в повседневном общении.
Предложенный материал позволяет систематизировать и отработать навыки планирования высказывания, использования аргументов, поддержания беседы, организовывать и излагать мысль исходя из поставленных коммуникативных целей.
Материал апробирован в процессе обучения студентов НИУ ВШЭ Санкт-Петербург.
Пособие может быть использовано для аудиторной и самостоятельной работы студентов, а также полезно широкому кругу лиц, изучающих английский язык.
В сборнике статей, основанных на докладах, прочитанных на круглом столе «Язык(и) древнеегипетской культуры: проблемы переводимости», состоявшемся в 2017 г., представлены работы, относящиеся к различным периодам истории Древнего Египта. Они затрагивают разнообразную проблематику, связанную с вопросами различ- ных египтологических дисциплин: истории, филологии, религиоведения, искусствозна- ния, культурологии. Статьи посвящены специфике воплощения и диалогу вербальных и невербальных языков древнеегипетской культуры.
In the Great Terror of 1937–38 more than a million Soviet citizens were arrested or killed for political crimes they didn’t commit. What kind of people carried out this violent purge, and what motivated them? This book opens up the world of the Soviet perpetrator for the first time. Focusing on Kuntsevo, the Moscow suburb where Stalin had a dacha, Alexander Vatlin shows how Stalinism rewarded local officials for inventing enemies. Agents of Terror reveals stunning, detailed evidence from archives available for a limited time in the 1990s. Going beyond the central figures of the terror, Vatlin takes readers into the offices and interrogation rooms of secret police at the district level. Spurred at times by ambition, and at times by fear for their own lives, agents rushed to fulfill quotas for arresting “enemies of the people” —even when it meant fabricating the evidence. Vatlin pulls back the curtain on a Kafkaesque system, forcing readers to reassess notions of historical agency and moral responsibility in Stalin-era crimes.
This book examines the history of reforms and major state interventions affecting Russian agriculture: the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the Stolypin reforms, the New Economic Policy (NEP), the collectivization, the Khrushchev reforms, and finally the farm enterprise privatization in the early 1990s. It shows a pattern emerging from a political imperative in imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet regimes, and it describes how these reforms were justified in the name of the national interest during severe crises – rapid inflation, military defeat, mass strikes, rural unrest, and/or political turmoil. It looks at the consequences of adversity in the economic environment for rural behavior after reform and at longrun trends. It has chapters on property rights, rural organization, and technological change. It provides a new database for measuring agricultural productivity from 1861 to 1913 and updates these estimates to the present. This book is a study of the policies aimed at reorganizing rural production and of their effectiveness in transforming institutions.
This report analyzes government support to agriculture in the Republic of Suriname.
The Guide has been written for everyone working or training to work in the legal profession. It provides basic knowledge of legal words and terms. The various exercises throughout the Guide focus on the key legal vocabulary that must be known by law learners.