This volume contains a selection of papers based on presentations given in 2006-2007 at the S. P. Novikov Seminar at the Steklov Mathematical Institute in Moscow. Novikov's diverse interests are reflected in the topics presented in the book. The articles address topics in geometry, topology, and mathematical physics. The volume is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in the corresponding areas of mathematics and physics.
Ce volume rassemble pour la première fois en français les écrits de jeunesse russes que Georges Gurvitch (1894-1965) consacrait à l’histoire de la philosophie du droit. Il s’ouvre sur « Pravda Voli Monarshej » de Théophane Prokopovitch et ses sources européennes (Grotius, Hobbes, Pufendorf) qui parut en 1915. Cet ouvrage, qui décida de la carrière académique de Gurvitch, est suivi de Rousseau et la Déclaration des droits. L’idée des droits inaliénables dans la doctrine politique de J.-J. Rousseau, un opuscule que Gurvitch publia en 1918. Ce volume s’achève par un article de 1922 qui porte sur l’idée des droits inaliénables aux XVII° et XVIII° siècles. Au fil de ces textes, Gurvitch développe les grands axes de sa pensée qui formeront l’arrière-plan de ses recherches parues dans l’entre-deux-guerres. Ils indiquent notamment les premiers jalons de la jonction entre philosophie du droit et sociologie dont le penseur était en quête avant de la stabiliser en 1931 à travers l’idée de droit social. Ces textes découvrent également tout un pan méconnu d’influences intellectuelles russes auxquelles Gurvitch a durablement puisé pour élaborer son système, et qu’il essaiera de faire reconnaître auprès des philosophes et sociologues en Allemagne, en France et aux Etats-Unis. Les matériaux rassemblés en fin de volume permettent d’aborder les textes présentés du point de vue de leur teneur intellectuelle et de leur poids dans la biographie de l’auteur. Il s’en dégage l’image d’un jeune juriste très tôt considéré par ses contemporains et ses professeurs qui le prennent en égal, le recensent et le critiquent – échanges en partie inédits dont Gurvitch entretiendra d’abord la lettre puis le souvenir à travers l’ensemble de son oeuvre.
Both Georgia and Azerbaijan saw GDP growth decelerate in 2015 due to negative external factors. Azerbaijan's economy continued to contract in 1Q16, but Georgia showed some signs of recovery. As oil prices have stabilized above $40/bbl, pressure on the Azeri manat has eased. Pressure on the Georgian lari has also eased, and the currency has even strengthened, allowing the National Bank to cut the key policy rate.
Shalva Nutsubidze (1888–1969) was a philosopher in the classic sense of the word: he dedicated his life to pursuing his love for Wisdom. Already in his younger years, he received a philosophical intuition that centered on the idea of aletheia, that is, the insight that Truth is the highest reality. Nutsubidze began to explain and articulate this intuition to himself and to others, with whom he engaged in dialogue, in different ways and in different contexts: as an original philosopher by using his own formulations, as a historian of philosophy by availing himself of the thoughts and formulations of congenial thinkers of the past such as Ioane Petritsi and Dionysius the Areopagite, as a historian of literature by letting the poetic language of Shota Rustaveli and other mediaeval Georgian authors whom he had studied speak for himself. Nutsubidze’s choice of research topics was, quite naturally, influenced by the circumstances of life of his own epoch, circumstances that were full of risks for the life and well-being for anyone who was unable to keep under lock and hidden away his or her ability to think independently. Such pressures may account for the fact that studies of poetry and culture ended up occupying a much greater place in his scientific production than one would have expected it in the 1910s, when he had begun to make a name for himself as a scholar. Some will regret that he never returned to writing on pure” philosophy after preparing his major monographs in the 1920s. However, this fact of his biography which was unfortunate from the perspective of the study of philosophy, turned into a fortunate felix culpa for the progress in studies of Georgian literature and, especially, studies of Rustaveli. Nutsubidze was the first to uncover, what by now has become a common place in scholarship: that Rustaveli was not only a poetic genius and a wise man, but also a philosopher in the vein of Dionysius the Areopagite and Ioane Petritsi. The very genre of Rustaveli’s poem could be called “philosophical poetry,” analogous to the manner in which one speaks of “philosophical dialogue.” Nutsubidze’s reading of The Knight in the Panther’s Skin has resurrected Rustaveli for the modern reader as a true philosopher. The present volume is dedicated to Shalva Nutsubidze and his memory by presenting studies that concentrate on the personalities and epochs, which were of particular interest to him: Dionysius the Areopagite andthe Iberian, the Christian Orient between the Council of Chalcedon and the Arab conquest, Ioane Petritsi and Shota Rustaveli in the context of the wider mediaeval Georgian culture, but especially with a focus on the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Since language is a constitutive pillar of cultural expression, we decided to conclude the volume with a new tool for learning the Old Georgian language, which still remains the least accessible language of the ancient and medieval Eastern Mediterranean Christian tradition. As a result, we hope that this volume will serve its audiences well when it is read as an introduction to Georgian Christian culture through the lens of several of its major themes.
Der Zusammenhang zwischen den Begriffen Recht und Gerechtigkeit ist ein zentraler Bestandteil politischer Debatten in Zeiten radikaler sozialer Veränderungen. Das Recht wird in der modernen Wissenschaft als spezifische Form sozialer Organisation definiert und tritt als Wert, Norm und Fakt in Erscheinung. Eine komplexe Betrachtung des Rechts als mehrdimensionales Phänomen ist nur unter Berücksichtigung aller dieser drei konkurrierenden Parameter möglich.Im folgenden Beitrag werden aus der Position der Kognitionstheorie die grundlegenden Parameter von Recht und Gerechtigkeit bei der Lösung von Schlüsselproblemen des gesellschaftlichen Umbaus in der Übergangsperiode vorgestellt.
Superconducting properties of metallic nanowires can be entirely different from those of bulk superconductors because of the dominating role played by thermal and quantum fluctuations of the order parameter. For superconducting channels with diameters below ∼ 50 nm fluctuations of the phase of the complex order parameter - the phase slippage - lead to non-zero resistance below the critical temperature. Fluctuations of the modulus of the complex order parameter broaden the gap edge of the quasiparticle energy spectrum and modify the density of states. In extreme case of very narrow channels imbedded in high-impedance environment (which fix the charge and, hence, enable strong fluctuations of the quantum-conjugated variable, the phase) the superconductor can be driven to insulating state – the Coulomb blockade. We review recent experimental activities in the field demonstrating rather unusual phenomena.
В монографии представлены результаты исследования института оценки в финансовом праве как комплексного института, урегулированного нормами налогового, бюджетного и таможенного законодательства. Рассмотрены вопросы эффек- тивности правовых механизмов оценки в плане минимизации возможных рисков причинения ущерба бюджету. На основе анализа механизма оценки, оценочных процедур авторы выходят на острейшие проблемы современной российской экономики и права — уклонение от налоговой обязанности, определение пределов законной оптимизации налогообложения, истощения резервного фонда и фонда национального благосостояния.
The Allies and the Italian Resistance
Книга адресована учащимся средних общеобразовательных школ, гимназий и лицеев с углубленным изучением английского языка, студентам лингвистических специальностей, а также всем изучающим дисциплину «Петербурговедение на английском языке».
Книга может быть использована при подготовке гидов-переводчиков, а также в качестве справочного пособия для широкого круга читателей, интересующихся историей архитектуры Санкт-Петербурга и его пригородов.
Предлагаемое учебное пособие является вторым, исправленным и дополненным, изданием книги Saint-Petersburg and its Environs.
The protracted nature of the current global financial crisis has led to reduced forecasts of economic and energy consumption growth accompanied by an obvious accelerated increase in the share taken by developing countries. • In the long term, fossil fuels will remain dominant, against the background of a slower growth in the share of non-hydrocarbon energy resources than was estimated in the previous Outlook. The ‘shale breakthrough’ has postponed for two or three decades the threat of running out of economically viable oil and gas reserves – which had seemed so close just five to seven years ago – and has secured the predominantly hydrocarbon character of the world’s energy sector. The share of oil and gas in world primary energy consumption will remain practically unchanged (53.6 per cent in 2010 and 51.4 per cent by 2040). • The study of oil and gas price dynamics in different scenarios did not show fundamental cause for alarmist forecasts predicting either too high, or extremely low, prices within the period under review. In all cases – ranging from future success to possible failure of shale technologies – oil prices in 2040 will not move out of the range $100–130/bbl. Gas prices will be closely correlated with oil prices, but also strongly differentiated by region (which does not exclude large short-term fluctuations in prices under the influence of political and speculative factors). • Despite the integration of oil and gas markets, as international trade in oil and liquefied natural gas (LNG) expands, the trend towards regionalization of prices, resulting in considerable differences in price levels, will gain momentum. • Natural gas will account for the most substantial increase in absolute volumes of consumption, and the share taken by gas in primary energy consumption will increase more than that of any other fuel. The next 30 years could, quite reasonably, be considered as ‘the era of gas’. But Russia runs the risk of missing the resulting opportunities. • The consequences of the expected transformation of world energy and, especially, hydrocarbon markets will not significantly change the fuel markets themselves, but the positions of the leading market participants will clearly be rebalanced, while some global players will be able to gain influence. The results of our research clearly show that Russia will be more susceptible to adverse changes in market conditions during the forecast period. In the Baseline Scenario, Russian oil and gas exports to foreign markets appear to be significantly lower than the official national projections. • High costs and the current taxation system both limit the competitiveness of Russian energy resources in global markets. The Russian fuel and energy complex could face severe restrictions on external demand for energy resources at prices acceptable to Russia, resulting in additional risks for Russia’s energy sector and economy. This research provides preliminary estimates of the consequences of this impact on the country’s economic growth (one percentage point slowdown per year) and possible measures to compensate for it.
В книге анализируются актуальные проблемы правовго регулирования и практики борьбы с финансированием терроризма на международном и национальном уровне
Nowadays globalization processes have become all-embracing. But at the same time, despite the ever-increasing flow of publications on globalization, our understanding and knowledge of it still leaves much to be desired. Especially it concerns the global processes in general, of which globalization is a part. We also need to systematize our ideas about globalization and Global Studies to somehow fit the realities. In particular, this concerns the education process, because the current state of education will determine the way people will perceive reality in the forthcoming decades. This yearbook aims at contributing to the solution of these important tasks. It is the third in the series of yearbooks titled Globalistics and Globalization Studies. This year it has the following subtitle: Aspects & Dimensions of Global Views. Its authors consider globalization and Global Studies in different dimensions and aspects: philosophical, methodological, and pedagogical, in terms of various processes, problems and perspectives. Of course, to some extent this means that this yearbook presents rather diverse materials. But globalization itself is very diverse. And its comprehension may proceed in the framework of different theoretical approaches and points of view. In the present yearbook one can find perceptions of globalization and Global Studies by a number of scholars from different countries of the world and learn rather peculiar visions of globalization by the Russian scientists and educators. The yearbook will be interesting to a wide range of researchers, teachers, students and all those who pay attention to global issues.
This is the second issue of the new series titled Globalistics and Globalization Studies. Globalistics may be regarded as a sort of systemic and more or less integrated ‘core’ within Global Studies. At present Global Studies function in two main dimensions – in the research of global political, economic, cultural and social processes, on the one hand, and in the realm of teaching – manifesting themselves in the creation of various Global Studies programs and courses for university students who learn to see the world in its entirety and variety. The second dimension is immensely important as the contents of such programs and courses may determine how the world will be comprehended by those people who may decide its fate in a decade or two. This dualistic nature of Global Studies has determined the general direction of our anthology that comprises both the theoretical dimension of Global Studies and their application to the teaching process. The anthology consists of three parts presenting a wide range of views on the meaning of the contemporary epoch, the past and the future of some important global processes as well as the problems and successes in the teaching process of Global Studies. Part 1. Globalization in Historical Retrospective. Part 2. Globalistics, Global Studies, and Global Processes. Part 3. Teaching Global Studies. In the present anthology one can fi nd perceptions of globalization by a number of famous scholars from different countries of the world (Ervin Laszlo, Christopher Chase-Dunn, and others), but one can also get to know rather peculiar visions of globalization by Russian scientists and educators.
We see globalization as the growth of the sizes of social systems and the increase in the complexity of intersocietal links. Thus, in certain respects, globalization may be regarded as a process connecting the past, the present, and the future—as a sort of bridge between the past and the future. The title and the composition of the present volume refl ect this idea. Globalization: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow is distinguished by its focus on the systemic aspects of globalization processes. Political, economic, geographic, ecological, social, cultural, ethnic, religious and historical processes are analyzed and their single and joint impacts on globalization are discussed. The purpose is to complement more objective or ‘technical’ globalization narratives with more direct accounts of social and emotional issues. There are a number of publications