Synergie. Kultur- und Wissensgeschichte einer Denkfigur
Представленная книга является результатом пятилетней работы над концептами "синергия".
It is shown in the article that the notion of evolutionary holism includes in itself the understanding of emergent properties of the whole, of an integrated structure which is being formed in the course of self-organization and evolution. Self-organization and emergence are conjugated notions. One should not understand emergence in a simplistic way: this is not simply spontaneity and unpredictability of appearance of new properties on the level of the whole structure. If we speak of unpredictability and of incomprehensibility of the appearance of something new, we underline only the epistemological aspect of novelty. Emergence, as creative chance, is rooted in being, has its ontological basis. Emergence is irreducibility of properties of the whole (a system) to properties of its parts (elements or subsystems). This is irreducibility of highly organized to less organized, of the complex to more simple, of a higher level of hierarchy to lower one. Evolution consists of qualitative leaps, of phase transitions and of emergent transformations, in which formerly unknown properties come into existence. Emergence is a way of birth of novelty in the process of evolution of nature and of society.As concerns the notion of co-evolution, it is not simply a process of adjustment of parts to each other by formatting a complex whole, of their resonant positional relationship and of synchronization of tempos of development, but it is enactive cognition of the world by a human being, synergism between a cognizing and constructing subject and a medium surrounding him. This is also an interactive connection between human organizations and single individuals, the universal collaboration, complicity and solidarity, concerted efforts in construction and rebuilding of the world, and thereby of one’s own mentality. This is disclosure of universal affinity of all with everything and of mysterious connection between the past, the present and the future.