Анализируются социальные и профессиональные характеристики, а также ценностные ориентации современного инноватора в сфере образования. Исследование проводилось среди участников Конкурса инноваций в образовании 2014 г., выборка составила 304 респондента. Ценностные ориентации выявлялись с помощью портретного опросника Ш. Шварца. Результаты сравнивались с данными о ценностных ориентациях российского населения, полученными в ходе Европейского социального исследования (European Social Survey) в 2012 г. Участники конкурса значимо отличаются от среднего россиянина как по субъективной важности для них тех или иных ценностных ориентаций, так и по структуре их иерархии. Инноваторам более свойственны ценности самостоятельности, благожелательности и универсализма, готовность идти на риск в профессиональной деятельности. Они в меньшей степени руководствуются в своих действиях желанием получить и удержать власть, не основанную на собственных достижениях. Проведенное исследование показало, что инновации в области образования готовы предложить и реализовать как специалисты — сотрудники образовательных учреждений разного уровня, так и сотрудники организаций, не имеющих прямого отношения к образованию, а также школьники и студенты. Инноваторов отличает высокий образовательный уровень и активное участие в мероприятиях дополнительного образования.
The article investigates the accessibility of mobile and networking technologies to schoolchildren of different ages living in various areas and how they use these technologies. The author considers the potential ways in which modern technologies can be used in education. The potential benefits of such technologies are particularly promising for rural schools. The article comments on the modern trend to create a seamless educational environment on the basis of e-learning.
The author assesses the preferences of the faculty and teaching staff at Russian universities with regard to their research and teaching duties. She investigates how they structure their work schedule and academic productivity, and how universities with and without special status differ. The study is based on data from two international studies conducted in Russia and other countries: International Academic Profession (1991-93) and Changing Academic Profession (2007-12). In Russia, most university instructors prefer teaching to research, in contrast to the preferences of academics in many other countries. The distribution of the preferences of instructors at institutions with "research university" status is no different from that of instructors at institutions without special status. Although the research workload of instructors who prefer to conduct research is greater and the tasks they perform are less routine, they experience less stress and have greater job satisfaction. The author concludes that the distribution of instructors' preferences reflects the peculiarities of the higher education system in the USSR and the Russian Federation, including the focus of its universities on teaching, the allocation of research functions to institutions that are separate from universities, and the poor funding of universities in general and their research functions in particular.
Management in Russia is as difficult to define as a profession as it is in other countries, and the question of what education is appropriate for a future manager is also difficult to define. Business schools in russia need to think more carefully about their curriculums and about what they should be preparing their students for.
The article analyzes the constituent steps and measures of the Soviet campaign to eradicate illiteracy among adults in the 1920s–30s. A comparison of educational and ideological aspects of this campaign demonstrates how closely they were interrelated and how they facilitated the creation of new patterns of cultural behavior. The author shows that during the campaign entire groups of the population not only learned how to read and write, but also mastered (and partly helped form) a new “Soviet language” for communication with the Soviet authorities and to achieve their own goals through the manipulation of official concepts and terms. The study is based on guidelines for teachers, official Soviet decrees, the media, manuals, and alphabet books.
The authors discuss the underpinnings of structural analysis in the higher education system. The article justifies why it focuses on specific labor market segments and the nature of the university's basic product as grounds for proposing a typology and groups of institutions. A Soviet "master plan" is reconstructed on the basis of the formulated approach to the typology. It is important because, according to the authors, the current structure of the Russian system of higher education is largely determined by how it developed during the Soviet period. It is shown that the Soviet project was built on the idea of administrative regulation of the labor market, and it is argued that it generally implemented a quasi-corporate system model of higher vocational education. The article analyzes how the structure of the higher education system that Russia inherited from the Soviet Union changed under the influence of factors that were mainly external to the education system. It was changed to a much lesser degree by deliberate government policy. The typology of higher education institutions that results from these changes is described based on an analysis of quantitative data. The authors consider possible structural policy directions in the field of higher vocational education as a foundation for working out a "master plan" for restructuring the higher education system in Russia. The authors establish goals that must be met by the modernization of the structure of higher education. © 2015 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.